1. In Current Science, an atom is the smallest unit that defines the chemical elements and their isotopes.
- Every atom is composed of a nucleus made of positive electric charge protons and neutral neutrons called nucleons.
- Hydrogen-1 has no neutrons.
- The nucleus is surrounded by concentric shells of negative electric charge electrons.
- The number of protons determines the chemical element the element belong to (e.g. all calcium atoms contain 20 protons).
- The number of neutrons determines what isotope the element is (e.g. calcium-40 has 20 protons + 20 neutrons = 40 nucleons); calcium-48 has 20 protons + 28 neutrons = 48 nucleons).
2. In Neu Theory, an atom is the smallest unit that defines the chemical elements and their isotopes.
- The first atom is hydrogen-1, a proton plus a dynamic electron. The proton is a free Type I matter core [1b] covered with a discrete detachable shell of positive electric energy [6+] with a finite thickness. The electron is a free inverted Type I matter shell [2b] covered with a discrete (mirror opposite) shell of negative electric energy [6-] with a finite thickness. The positive and negative electric energy shells are 1/2 of the whole electric quanta and strongly attracted to each other. Observations indicate that approximately 92% of all the atoms in the cosmos are hydrogen-1.
- All other atoms are composed of a positively charged nucleus called a nuclide. The nuclide is a cluster of topologically discrete deuteron (H-2), helion (He-3), and neutron (n) cells called neucleons.
- There are no separate protons with discrete charge shells in the nucleus. Protons are only present as a structural part of the neucleon cells. Their positive electric charge shells have detached from the individual matter surface(s) and migrated into a combined positive electric charge shield of finite thickness above the neutral neucleon cluster membrane surface.
- The space around the positive nuclides is dynamically surrounded by concentric shells of free electrons with negative electric charge shells. Positive and negative charges exactly neutralize each other without losing their individual identity.
- Nuclides are neutral neucleon clusters made from (1,2,3,…146) neucleon cells that are held together below a composite positive electric charge shield made from the total number of proton charges. Some cluster numbers (19, 35, 39, 61, 89, 115, and 139 cells) are not found in nature.
- All stable nuclides are made of deuteron cells with added neutron cells.
- The Helion (helium-3) neucleon is stable as a free neucleon, but unstable when part of a neucleon cluster.
- The number of deuteron (and unstable helion) cells determines the chemical element the nuclide belong to (e.g. all calcium atoms contain 20 deuteron cells).
- The number of neutron cells determines what isotope the element is (e.g. calcium-40 has 20 deuteron cells only = 20 neucleons); calcium-48 has 20 deuteron cells + 8 neutron cells = 28 neucleons). See Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table for nuclear values.
- Neutrons (n) are unstable as free objects but can be stable when held below the positive electric charge shield of a neucleon cluster.