The Cosmic Matter/Energy Cycle
The Topology of Cosmic Renewal
Nature has a dynamic topology that can be simply understood as the perpetual one-way transformation between the two quantum and two topologically bonded physical states that occurs as part of a natural cosmic matter/energy cycle maintained by all the galaxies of the universe, acting as a whole. This natural cycle of renewal creates a fresh supply of neutrons that are periodically emitted by active galactic nuclei (AGN) creating fresh supplies of space and electric charge couples.
The universe powers itself
A one-way movement of matter and energy is required by nature to maintain universal homeostasis, and is the reason why galaxies exist. It is hypothesized that the “thermostat” of this cycle, is the universal neutral/electric number ratio, calculated at ∼ 0.13N:0.87N. The neutral number is increased by stellar neucleon synthesis, and decreased by AGN emission of neutrons. For homeostasis to occur, the universal average AGN emission cycle (the average time between AGN events) of the galaxies must provide enough fresh zomon bursts to balance the cosmic expansion and diffusion-in-place of zome.
Space is the perpetual bosonic one-way isotropic radial (straight) expansion and diffusion-in-place at the accelerating speed of light, of ∼ 0.87N zomons with an average energy of 8.40 x 10-14 Joules and an average volume initially set at 4.6 m3. With this average volume space has an estimated average maintained density at 1.82 x 10-14 J/m3. If the average volume or average energy of a zomon should change, the space density calculation will correspondingly change. Zomons are unique as they are only born and never die, they just continuously fade away into historical time. Space is always moving at the accelerating speed of light towards and away from the matter and the charge shells embedded within its volume.
The Triple Bang Hypothesis
- The 1st bang is the little bang, the birth of the matter couple [1b][2b]and the physical environment of electricity [6+][6-][7+][7-], space  & linear motion . The energy comes from the de-linkage of 0.000833u of plasm spinrise matter .
- The 2nd bang is the birth of electron orbital motion  & atomic light , starting with the synthesis of stable hydrogen. The energy comes from a reduction in potential energy of the electric fields [7+][7-].
- The 3rd bang is the birth of nuclear light  and nuclide recoil motion  starting with the synthesis of the stable deuteron. The energy comes from a de-linkage of captive proton mass [1b].
The Atomic Matter/Energy Cycle
Figure 5.1 shows the six major stages of the atomic cycle:Figure 5.1 – The Atomic Matter/Energy Cycle[/caption]
The one-way atomic cycle takes the following 6 topological steps:
|a-state →||b-state |
|ab-state →||abb-state →||ab+a-state →||a-state|
Step 1 – The a-state neutron is ejected from an active electric supercell. The free neutron is a composite structure made of three pure matter forms with a brief 15 minute average lifetime spontaneously ending in the 1st Bang. Step 1 is the release of free neutrons from active galactic electric supercells. The universal electric and neutral numbers remain unchanged.
Step 2 – The free neutron spontaneously topologically transforms into the b-state proton and electron ions. This is the 1st or “little” Bang. The S2 topological surface of the electron membrane changes from a hollow to a ball surface. The V3 topological volume of the plasm changes from a closed-hollow into an open-hollow. Step 2 is the de-linkage of plasm (0.000833u) making the quantum parts. These are matter and energy fragments created after the transformation. The universal neutral number decreases by one, the universal electric number increases by one.
Step 3 – The b-state proton ion and the b-state electron ion are strongly attracted to each other and form an electro/kinetic bond becoming stable hydrogen-1 with the release of a photon of light. This is the 2nd Bang. Step 3 is atomic synthesis and the birth of radiant energy. The universal electric and neutral numbers remain unchanged.
Steps 1-3 take place relatively quickly by cosmic time standards, within days from neutron ejection. Steps 4-6 take place over billions of years.
Step 4 – 2 b-state proton ions and 1 b-state electron ion topologically combine into 1 ab-state deuteron ion. Step 4 is the creation of the deuteron cell, the first neucleon. This step which makes stable hydrogen-2 occurs in high temperature, high density stellar environments – starting with “brown dwarf” stars ~ 4,000 earth mass – creates a topologically bonded neutron with a proton immersed in its plasm surrounded by an electric charge shell which has migrated from above the proton’s spinning surface to above the non-spinning neutral neutron membrane. This is the precursor to further nuclear fusion. The S2 surface of the membrane changes from a ball into a hollow surface. One V3 volume changes from an open-hollow to a closed-hollow by the synthesis of 0.000833u of plasm. One universal electric number changes into a universal neutral number. The Deuteron – the first nucleon is created in the heart of stars with the emission of radiation and motion. The release of gamma rays and recoil energy are the 3rd Bangs which are created with nuclide synthesis. The universal neutral number increases by one, the universal electric number decreases by one.
Step 5 – 1 ab-state deuteron ion and 1 b-state proton ion topologically and electrically bond into 1 abb-state helion ion. Step 5 is the creation of the helion cell, the second neucleon. This step makes helium-3, a neutron cell with two captive protons. This step is true fusion as 2 separate charge shells layer into 1 charge shield with a charge value of +2. The Helion is the second nucleon representing the next step required for neutron regeneration. The universal neutral and electric numbers remain unchanged.
Step 6 – 1 abb-state helion ion and 1 b-state electron ion topologically combine and transform into 1 ab+a-state triton, a 2 cell nuclide. Step 6 is the creation of the neutron cell, the third neucleon. One V3 volume changes from an open-hollow to a closed-hollow by the synthesis of 0.000833u of plasm. The a-state neutron created during this step remains below the ab-state deuteron’s charge shield. Tritons can fuse with deuterons making larger charge shielded nuclides. The free triton structure is unstable. This is the method by which neutrons in a nuclide are made. The helion, a one cell object with two captive protons and a double charge shield, becomes a Triton which is a two cell object consisting of a deuteron and a neutron below a single charge shield. This is how a neutron is reborn. The deuteron-helion-triton process combines protons and electrons together regenerating fresh bound neutrons that become part of the atomic nuclides. The universal neutral number increases by one, the universal electric number decreases by one.
Through a long term process taking billions of years, the galaxy is enriched by heavy metals synthesized by other stellar processes such as novas and supernovas. The heavy metal nuclides have a higher ratio of neutrons to deuterons. The heavy nuclides are transported towards the galactic center, where they are accreted into the galaxy electric supercell, the “black hole” of current science. The bound neutrons are sorted and transported towards the poles of the spin axis, and then eventually emitted in opposite directions from the electric supercell during the active galactic nuclei (AGN) phase, becoming free neutrons in space, restarting Step 1. The neutrons will then spontaneously fragment to become hydrogen maintaining the cosmic cycle.
The Galaxy Form
Galaxies are a collection of stars, interstellar matter fragments, dust and gas in orbit around a common center of mass. Galaxies come in many different sizes and shapes. There are dwarf galaxies with ten thousand stars to giant galaxies with one hundred trillion stars. The visual shape of galaxies is generally described as being elliptical, spiral or irregular.
Figure 5.2 is a schematic diagram of a typical spiral galaxy, similar to the our local Milky Way galaxy. The Section shows the galaxy in a spin-up position, i.e., the north galactic pole is up. The Plan shows the galaxy from above the north pole with the stars orbiting (counter-clockwise).
Figure 5.2 – The Spiral Galaxy Form[/caption]
The Reason Galaxies Exist
The cosmic purpose of galaxies is to maintain a process by which a-state neutrons are manufactured and released into space. The neutrons spontaneously transform into b-state electric couples making fresh space quanta and hydrogen to fuel the stars. The fresh input of space is required to replenish the continuous one way expansion and diffusion of space within the cosmic open-hollow.
The a-state neutrons are made through stellar processes, that first manufacture deuterons from hydrogen gas, then the light elements, and then the heavier elements. The heavier nuclides have a larger number of neutron “guests” with their deuteron “hosts”. As examples: iron (Fe56), is a 26 deuteron host family with 4 neutron guests; gold (Au197) is a 79 deuteron host family with 39 neutron guests. All atoms above calcium (Ca40), the largest all deuteron family with 20 deuterons, have 2 or more neutrons.
The galactic supercell over time accretes heavy nuclides which carry a higher percentage of a-state neutrons. It is these accreted neutron guests that are sorted, transported to the poles, and then ejected back into space to maintain the cosmic matter cycle.
The initial assumption made by the model is that neutron cells cannot be manufactured in the neucleon supercluster, and must be made outside the supercell by stellar processes in the galaxy as a whole.
The stars of a galaxy are spherical bodies of plasma bound together by collective g-rise. In the Neu Theory model, stars have one primary purpose in the universe, and that is to synthesize fresh neutrons for the cosmic cycle.
Stars are neucleon manufacturing factories. The perpetual synthesis of the atomic elements is a natural part of this process.
Stars begin with fresh hydrogen, nothing else is needed.
It is pure neu number, a minimum of ∼ 4,000 earth mass (1.47×1055), that starts this process. A star this size is called a brown dwarf. With this number the collective g-rise of the hydrogen plasma is dense and hot enough to form deuterons. Neu Theory does not consider the synthesis of deuterons as fusion, but as a topological transformation and bonding procedure by two protons and one electron as two +1 charge shells have become one +1 charge shield.
With larger neu numbers, ~ 25,000 earth mass (9.5×1055) the deuterons (H2) will fuse into alphas (He4), along with helions (He3) and tritons (H3).
The deuterons, alphas, and tritons then fuse into stable clusters, to make all the atomic elements and isotopes.
Normal stellar fusion makes the elements up to iron and nickel. The elements after nickel are made by more dramatic stellar processes such as supernovas.
The atomic matter/energy cycle (a → b → ab → abb → ab+a → a) occurs as a natural one-way process, first in stars which synthesize the neutron neucleons (a), and then by the galactic supercell core which acts as a neutron sorting and emission factory. It is this periodic ejection of fresh unstable neutrons, by active galaxy supercells of the universe, that provides the fresh hydrogen and space needed to maintain cosmic homeostasis.
We can begin with hydrogen gas which collapses into a dense hot plasma of protons (b+) and electrons (b-) ions. A mass number of ∼ 9.0×1055 is required for normal stellar evolution.
Deuterons are made first from collective g-rise pressure which allows one electron (b) with its negative charge shell to flip over two protons (b+b) each with its own positive charge shell, thereby making a deuteron (ab) with one positive charge shell. See Figure 4.3.
One of the proton charge shells topologically "zips" with the electron charge shell to make the 0.000833 spin movement/energy part of the neucleonic plasm matter. The 0.000833 rise movement/energy part of the neucleonic plasm matter comes from the mass of the other proton, which has become a captive, with its positive charge shell now over the deuteron cell’s neucleonic membrane surface.
The helion (abb) to the triton (ab+a) by electron capture is considered the necessary intermediate process that allows the elements that need neutrons in the cell cluster to be synthesized, e.g., berylium-9.
There are no free neutrons made in stars that are available to join a deuteron cluster. The neutrons are all formed below a charge shell and they will all remain below the charge shield of some deuteron cell cluster until freed by some radioactive event, or galactic supercell sorting and emission.
Eventually all the protons (b) and electrons (b) of the original hydrogen gas become deuterons (ab) and neutrons (a) in stable or unstable neucleon clusters. The helion and tritons are intermediary states of this process. The helion becomes the triton. The triton loses its individual identity when it fuses with a larger deuteron cell cluster.
Gamma Ray Burster
In the Neu Theory model a gamma ray burster is a mass number, ∼4.0 x 1057 or larger, that has collapsed below its Schwarzschild radius. As the body collapses and fuses below an electric charge super shell, a fraction of total deuteron proton mass is converted into gamma rays with imploding recoil. The number of deuterons is not reduced. The body has become, what current science calls a “black hole”, and Neu Theory calls an electric supercell. In principle, the neu number is not changed by the collapse, but the neu mass is reduced. The mass loss of the deuteron proton reaches a natural limit ∼ 0.021589u. This is the mass loss in radioactive Lead-214, the largest mass loss per proton, of any atomic nuclide in nature. It is perhaps due to geometric packing limits, that no further reduction in proton size takes place. It is hypothesized, that the neucleon cluster core of all supercells are at the same density (∼ 73.98% absolute) whether it’s a 3 solar mass or 100 billion solar mass.
The Galactic Center
There is natural movement of matter towards the galactic center where it collects in an accretion disk around the galactic plane.
The galactic center can be imagined as a giant electric battery, consisting of a neucleon supercluster with a large number (100 thousand to 100 billion solar masses) of ab-state deuterons and a-state neutrons, surrounded by a positive supercharge shield (anode) equal to the deuteron number. There is only neutral matter below the positive electric supercharge shield in the core. Surrounding the positively shielded core, at 1.5 Schwarzschild radius, is a dense supercloud layer of an equal number of negative b-state electrons (cathode), making the entire core & cloud supercell electrically neutral. Between the positive supercharge shield and the negative electron supercloud is the electric superhollow volume filled with the residual electric field.Figure 5.3 – Galaxy Supercell Dynamics[/caption]
- neutral neuclon supercluster [E] – a spin/magnetism aligned core made of deuteron and neutron neucleons at an average ∼0.74 absolute density. The g-rise physical movement of the surface has reached maximum and is maintained at light speed. The core dynamics is between two immiscible fluids. The less dense (63.48 % abs) neutrons flow towards the neucleonic surface, and towards the poles of the net spin axis where they collect. The denser (77.46 % abs) deuterons stay towards the center. The supercore is continuously accreting nuclides around the equatorial plane. The model requires that by some natural trigger, yet to be identified, the “pooled” neutrons at the poles of the spin axis, are transported through the electric supershield, through the superhollow hyper spinfield, and then through the electron supercloud into space as free neutrons ready to little bang.
- positive electric supershield [D] – a positive electric charge layer over the neutral core that “bands” the large number of neucleons that are “pinned” together by g-rise at light speed. Unlike the charge shield of the atomic nuclides, where each charge shell is considered a discrete layered entity, the electric supershield is made from individual charge shells that have lost their individual fermionic topological forms, and have become an integer part of one homogeneous electric shell with a positive charge number equal to the core deuteron number.
- electric superhollow [C] – a spinfield volume w/ 2 parts:
- 1. A “hyper” spinfield volume in the enclosed space between the supercore+supershield and the Schwarzschild radius, where the orbital velocity and the escape velocity are maintained at light speed. It is hypothesized that it is this “hyper” spinfield volume that projects a homogenous spinfield floor resulting in the uniform velocity of stars within the extent of the galaxy spinfield hollow. The velocity of the stars is proportional to the mass of the core.
- 2. A spinfield volume in the enclosed space between 1 and 1.5 Schwarzschild radius, where the orbital velocity and the escape velocity begin to drop below light speed.
- electron supercloud [B] – a negative electric supercloud of electrons just above 1.5 Schwarzschild radius (the “photon sphere”), where the orbital velocity is below light speed. This is as close to the core as the electrons can get. The electrons form a dense lattice of mutually repelling objects vibrating near light speed strongly attracted to the positive electric supershied. There are as many electrons in the supercloud layer as there are deuterons in the supercell core, making the overall body neutral.
- supercell/space boundary – a neutral g-rising surface and spinfield below light speed with acceleration velocities added to the underlying hyper spinfield floor acceleration.
It is hypothesized that the neucleon supercluster [E] at the heart of the galactic core receives and separates the less dense “guest” neutrons of heavy nuclides from their denser deuteron hosts, and in a hydrodynamic flow, transports them into neutron cell “pools” near the supercluster poles. Here they stay below the positive super charge shield [D] until they are periodically released as two jets through the electron supercloud [B] along the polar axis. This is the active galactic nuclei phase (AGN). It is not clear what triggers the release. Possible reasons might be, reaching a critical neutral/electric ratio, or perhaps, when there is a minimum number of pooled neutrons.
It is assumed that the galactic supercell core does not make a-state neutrons, it can only work with the ones it receives from accretion. It is the stellar processes in the galaxy as a whole that make a-state neutrons. Neu Theory hypothesizes, that topologically all AGN events are ultimately releases of a-state matter, whether it happens in sputters or in large sustained bursts. In principle all galaxies behave the same, meaning they all follow the same natural cycle.
See Figure 5.3. The process begins with neutral atoms [A] entering the g-rising electric supercell boundary from an accretion disk in the galactic equatorial plane perpendicular to the core spin axis. As the atoms enter and pass through the electron supercloud halo [B], all the electrons are stripped from the atoms and remain with the electron halo, only the positively charged nuclides continue into the electric superhollow [C]. Here they are faced with the huge positive charge shield of the core.
How electric repulsion is overcome is a good question and needs an answer. Perhaps the g-rise at light speed of the core is enough. Perhaps the positive supershield and the negative supercloud charge fields balance each other creating a net neutral superhollow volume, and the accreting nuclides only experience the electric force of adjacent nuclides as they traverse the superhollow.
Eventually the individual charge shields of the accreting nuclides will touch the core’s electric supercharge shield and when that happens, the charge shields of the individual nuclides are stripped and fuse with the electric supershield [D]. All atomic identity is lost, meaning, the nuclides no longer remain iron, gold, or any other atom. All individual nuclide deuteron and neutron neucleons have become part of a single neutral spin aligned neucleon supercluster [E] made from only deuterons and neutrons cells.
One can speculate that within the nuclide supercluster body there are “hydrodynamic” currents within the larger number of ab-state deuteron cells that transport the smaller number of less dense a-state neutron cells from the equatorial accretion plane towards the polar axis. While the accreted deuterons join the main body of the supernuclide towards the core, the less dense accreted neutrons are hypothesized to stay towards the outer body, near the surface of the supercluster, just below the supercharge shield as they flow towards the poles [F]. The supernuclide body near the surface in contact with the supercharge shield is not modeled as a rigid (crystalized) quantum lattice, but more like an a-state quantum fluid that moves in a thin layer with spins parallel or anti-parallel from its place of entry at the galactic equator towards its place of collection and future exit from the galactic poles. The flow of neutron cells towards the poles is considered by Neu Theory as typical for all electric supercell cores.