NEU Theory

## NEU Theory

The Nature of Physical Reality

# The Measurement & Scale of Physical Reality

### Measurement

To measure a physical property is to ascertain or determine its magnitude or quantity of that property by comparison to a fixed unit. The result can be numerically displayed as a positive number or fraction of the unit.

Measurement may not be easy, but in principle, if it’s not there to be measured it does not exist. There are no “virtual” physical quantities in the Neu Theory model, only real physical quantities.

Any rational system of measurement is acceptable. We just need to be clear what is being measured, the unit of measurement, and the tool of measurement being used.

### Units

The numbers and values used in this work come from  Neu Theory Standards & Values; and Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table of Natural and Selected Radioactive Isotopes. These in turn are compiled from published scientific handbooks and other sources as referenced.

#### SI Units of Measurement

• Time: seconds (s)
• Space: meters (m)
• Mass: kilograms (kg)
• Temperature: degrees kelvin (K) or °C (Celsius)
• Electrical current: ampere (A)
• Luminosity: candela (l)
• amount of matter: mole (mol) 6.022 140 76 × 1023
• angle (θ) ° (degree), rad (radian), or rev (revolution), 360° = 2π rad = 1 rev
• cycles (n) cyc (cycles)
• speed of light 299 792 458 m/s
• one year (time in seconds) 31,557,600 s
• light year (distance in meters @ speed of light) 9.46 ×1015 m

#### Neu Theory Units of Measurement

Neu Theory uses the accepted SI values with one exception. The exception is the numerical value of the mole or amount of matter. This is required because Neu Theory uses a different atomic mass unit (amu) than current science. The neu mole is approximately equal to 5.971×1023.

The SI amu is based on 1/12th of the mass of a C-12 atom, approximately equal to 1.660 538 921 x 10-27 kg. With this standard the relative mass of a neutron is equal to 1.008 666 amu.

Neu Theory by definition sets the neutron equal to one amu. The Neu Theory amu is called the neu (neutron equivalent unit) and its measured value is approximately equal to 1.674 929 351 x 10-27 kg of mass.

In principle, the neu is an absolute unit – a precise invariant quantity – numerically equal to exactly one unit of mass. In practice, the absolute value of the neu in kilograms can only be approximated, because the mass of the neutron is so small, and the kilogram is based on a much larger physical artifact.

The neu is slightly larger than the C-12 amu representing an increase in relative mass value of approximately 0.8666 %. The atomic masses of the natural isotopes are now compared to the neu quantity with a corresponding decrease in relative mass value of approximately 0.8592 % as compared to the C-12 value. The absolute neu value of C-12 is 11.896901 instead of 12.000000. Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table gives the C-12 and the neu mass value of selected isotopes.

It should be emphasized that actual measured mass of atoms in kilograms and the equivalent energy value in joules, electron volts, or any other unit, is not changed in the slightest by using a neutron amu. The numerically smaller neu mass value of an isotope is exactly balanced by the numerically larger neu mass unit giving us precisely the same quantity of mass expressed in kilograms, that we had before.

The reason the neu is so useful is that it allows mass and energy to be counted with the same numeric scale, and allows us in principle to estimate the quantity and the ratio of matter to energy in the cosmos by using only two numbers.

#### Neu Values

• quantum spin energy (1.000 000 neu spin) 939.565 379 MeV = 1.505 349 631 x 10-10 J
• quantum rise energy (1.000 000 neu rise) 939.565 379 MeV = 1.505 349 631 x 10-10 J
• quantum mass ‘n’ (1.000 000 neu mass) 1.674 929 351 x 10-27 kg
• neu mole (neu number per kilogram) 5.970 401 076 x 1026
• quantum volume (1.000 000 neu mass @ absolute density) 2.502 50 x 10-45 m3
• absolute density (proton mass/proton volume as measured) 6.693 034 x 1017 kg/m3 = 1.0
• quantum spin ‘qs’ (number of spins per second) – (specific to quantum object)
• universal acceleration ‘a’ (uniform increase in the speed of light  c) – (as empirically determined)
• cosmic number ‘N’ (cosmic neu number @ 5.0 x 1011 galaxies) 3.0 x 1079 as used by the model

Note: The acceleration of c cannot be measured by tools made of matter as they also accelerate, but it can be measured by using a tool that does not accelerate – namely the redshift of photons.

### Order of Magnitude

Order of magnitude is the number of powers of 10 that there are in a number larger than one, or the number of powers of 0.1 in a number smaller than one. Order of magnitude is usually written as 10 to the nth power. The n represents the order of magnitude. If you raise a number by one order of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 10. If you raise a number by two orders of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 100. If you decrease a number by one order of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 0.1. If you decrease a number by two orders of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 0.01.

In Words

(short scale)

PrefixSymbolDecimalPower of ten

Order of Magnitude

octillionthxenno-x0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,00110-27-27
septillionthyocto-y0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,00110-24-24
sextillionthzepto-z0.000,000,000,000,000,000,00110-21-21
quintillionthatto-a0.000,000,000,000,000,00110-18-18
trillionthpico-p0.000,000,000,00110-12-12
billionthnano-n0.000,000,00110-9-9
millionthmicro-µ0.000,00110-6-6
thousandthmilli-m0.00110-3-3
hundrethcenti- c0.01 10-2-2
tenthdeci-d0.110-1-1
one11000
tendeca-da101011
hundredhecto-h1001022
thousandkilo-k1,0001033
millionmega-M1,000,0001066
billiongiga-G1,000,000,0001099
trilliontera-T1,000,000,000,000101212
quintillionexa-E1,000,000,000,000,000,000101818
sextillionzetta-Z1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000102121
septillionyotta-Y1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000102424
octillionxenna-X1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000102727
The difference between an octillionth (10-27) and an octillion (1027) is 54 orders of magnitude.

Order of magnitude is useful as a rough comparison between physical quantities. As an example, the rise energy density of space is estimated by the model at ~0.11 MeV/m3, a mass equivalence of ~2.03 x 10-31 kg/m3, which is 48 orders of magnitude less than absolute density at 6.693 x 1017 kg/m3.

Scientific notation is useful as a method of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimals.

### Scale

The term scale as used in this work, means the relative magnitude of natural size and quantity between the smallest and largest objects in nature.

Natural size and quantity of substance are two of the elementary physical properties of quantum matter and energy particles. Size is based entirely on substance and number.

The individual fermionic matter and charge shell volumes can only add together into larger and larger collections.

Universal space is hypothesized as the bosonic addition of ~0.79N zomons.

### The Neu Number of Common Objects

Object Description Neu NumberOrder of Magnitude
Neutron

The Quantum SpinRise Matter Whole

10
ElectronThe Inverted Type I Matter Membrane0.00054410-4
PlasmThe Contained Type II Matter0.00083310-4
ProtonThe Type I Matter Core0.99862310-1
Hydrogen 1The First Atom0.99916710-1
Atomshydrogen 1 – uranium 2381 – 2380 – 102
Neucleonsneutron, H2, He31 – 30
Molecules 2 – 50000 – 103
1 kilogramplatinum/iridium artifact∼5.970 401 076 x 10261026
Human70 kg (~ 42 octillion neus)4.18 x 10281028
Smallest naturally rounded solar bodyRhea, 2.3×1021 kg (~0.04% earth)1.37 x 10481048
The Moon7.35×1022 kg (~1.2% earth)4.39 x 10491049
The Earth5.9736 x 1024 kg – local 1 g-rise/spinfield theater3.57 x 10 511051
Jupiter317 earth number1.13 x 10541054
Smallest deuteron burning starbrown dwarf, ~4,000 earth number1.47 x 10551055
Smallest helium burning starred dwarf, ~25,000 earth number9.0 x 10 551055
The Sunlocal helium burning stellar furnace, ~330,000 earth number1.19 x 10571057
Smallest electric supercell corestellar “black hole,” ~3 solar number3.56 x 10571057
Milky Way electric supercell corecentral “black hole,” ~4.1 million solar number4.87 x 10631063
Large electric supercell core“black hole” TON 618 ~66 billion solar number7.85 x 10671067
The Milky Way GalaxyOur local matter/energy factory, ~300 billion solar number3.57 x 10681068
Large Cluster of Galaxies ~5 quadrillion solar number (5 x 1015)5.6 x 10721073
Cosmic Wholeuniversal open hollow with ~500 billion embedded galaxies3.0 x 10791079

### The Scale of Nature

The topological shape of the objects being measured is either a ball or a shell. The substance being measured is either matter or energy. We shall consider the scale of natural objects by comparing the following properties:

##### Smallest Objects in Nature
The smallest objects are the atoms and their elementary components.

##### Largest Objects in Nature
The largest objects are the stars, electric supercells, galaxies, clusters of galaxies and the volume of space itself.