# The Measurement & Scale of Physical Reality

### Measurement

To measure a physical property is to ascertain or determine its magnitude or quantity of that property by comparison to a fixed unit. The result can be numerically displayed as a positive number or fraction of the unit.

Measurement may not be easy, but in principle, if it’s not there to be measured it does not exist. There are no “virtual” physical quantities in the Neu Theory model, only real physical quantities.

Any rational system of measurement is acceptable. We just need to be clear what is being measured, the unit of measurement, and the tool of measurement being used.

### Units

#### SI Units of Measurement

**Time**: seconds (s)**Space**: meters (m)**Mass**: kilograms (kg)**Temperature**: degrees kelvin (K) or °C (Celsius)**Electrical current**: ampere (A)**Luminosity**: candela (l)**amount of matter**: mole (mol) 6.022 140 76 × 10^{23}**angle**(θ) ° (degree), rad (radian), or rev (revolution), 360° = 2π rad = 1 rev**cycles**(n) cyc (cycles)**speed of light**299 792 458 m/s**one year**(time in seconds) 31,557,600 s**light year**(distance in meters @ speed of light) 9.46 ×10^{15}m

#### Neu Theory Units of Measurement

Neu Theory uses the accepted SI values with one exception. The exception is the numerical value of the mole or amount of matter. This is required because Neu Theory uses a different atomic mass unit (amu) than current science. The neu mole is approximately equal to 5.971×10^{23}.

The SI amu is based on 1/12th of the mass of a C-12 atom, approximately equal to 1.660 538 921 x 10^{-27} kg. With this standard the relative mass of a neutron is equal to 1.008 666 amu.

Neu Theory by definition sets the neutron equal to one amu. The Neu Theory amu is called the neu (neutron equivalent unit) and its measured value is approximately equal to 1.674 929 351 x 10^{-27} kg of mass.

In principle, the neu is an absolute unit – a precise invariant quantity – numerically equal to exactly one unit of mass. In practice, the absolute value of the neu in kilograms can only be approximated, because the mass of the neutron is so small, and the kilogram is based on a much larger physical artifact.

The neu is slightly larger than the C-12 amu representing an increase in relative mass value of approximately 0.8666 %. The atomic masses of the natural isotopes are now compared to the neu quantity with a corresponding decrease in relative mass value of approximately 0.8592 % as compared to the C-12 value. The absolute neu value of C-12 is 11.896901 instead of 12.000000. Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table gives the C-12 and the neu mass value of selected isotopes.

It should be emphasized that actual measured mass of atoms in kilograms and the equivalent energy value in joules, electron volts, or any other unit, is not changed in the slightest by using a neutron amu. The numerically smaller neu mass value of an isotope is exactly balanced by the numerically larger neu mass unit giving us precisely the same quantity of mass expressed in kilograms, that we had before.

The reason the neu is so useful is that it allows mass and energy to be counted with the same numeric scale, and allows us in principle to estimate the quantity and the ratio of matter to energy in the cosmos by using only two numbers.

**Neu Values**

**quantum spin energy**(1.000 000 neu spin) 939.565 379 MeV = 1.505 349 631 x 10^{-10}J**quantum rise energy**(1.000 000 neu rise) 939.565 379 MeV = 1.505 349 631 x 10^{-10}J**quantum mass****‘n’**(1.000 000 neu mass) 1.674 929 351 x 10^{-27}kg**neu mole**(neu number per kilogram) 5.970 401 076 x 10^{26}**quantum volume**(1.000 000 neu mass @ absolute density) 2.502 50 x 10^{-45}m^{3}**absolute density**(proton mass/proton volume as measured) 6.693 034 x 10^{17}kg/m^{3}= 1.0^{}**quantum spin****‘qs’**(number of spins per second) – (specific to quantum object)**universal acceleration****‘a’**(uniform increase in the speed of light**c**) – (as empirically determined)**cosmic number ‘N‘**(cosmic neu number @ 5.0 x 10^{11}galaxies) 3.0 x 10^{79}as used by the model

**Note**: The acceleration of **c** cannot be measured by tools made of matter as they also accelerate, but it can be measured by using a tool that does not accelerate – namely the redshift of photons.

### Order of Magnitude

^{nth}power. The

*n*represents the order of magnitude. If you raise a number by one order of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 10. If you raise a number by two orders of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 100. If you decrease a number by one order of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 0.1. If you decrease a number by two orders of magnitude, you are multiplying that number by 0.01.

In Words (short scale) | Prefix | Symbol | Decimal | Power of ten | Order of Magnitude |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

octillionth | xenno- | x | 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 | 10^{-27} | -27 |

septillionth | yocto- | y | 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,001 | 10^{-24} | -24 |

sextillionth | zepto- | z | 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,001 | 10^{-21} | -21 |

quintillionth | atto- | a | 0.000,000,000,000,000,001 | 10^{-18} | -18 |

quadrillionth | femto- | f | 0.000,000,000,000,001 | 10^{-15} | -15 |

trillionth | pico- | p | 0.000,000,000,001 | 10^{-12} | -12 |

billionth | nano- | n | 0.000,000,001 | 10^{-9} | -9 |

millionth | micro- | µ | 0.000,001 | 10^{-6} | -6 |

thousandth | milli- | m | 0.001 | 10^{-3} | -3 |

hundreth | centi- | c | 0.01 | 10^{-2} | -2 |

tenth | deci- | d | 0.1 | 10^{-1} | -1 |

one | – | – | 1 | 10^{0} | 0 |

ten | deca- | da | 10 | 10^{1} | 1 |

hundred | hecto- | h | 100 | 10^{2} | 2 |

thousand | kilo- | k | 1,000 | 10^{3} | 3 |

million | mega- | M | 1,000,000 | 10^{6} | 6 |

billion | giga- | G | 1,000,000,000 | 10^{9} | 9 |

trillion | tera- | T | 1,000,000,000,000 | 10^{12} | 12 |

quadrillion | peta- | P | 1,000,000,000,000,000 | 10^{15} | 15 |

quintillion | exa- | E | 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 | 10^{18} | 18 |

sextillion | zetta- | Z | 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 | 10^{21} | 21 |

septillion | yotta- | Y | 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 | 10^{24} | 24 |

octillion | xenna- | X | 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 | 10^{27} | 27 |

^{-27}) and an octillion (10

^{27}) is 54 orders of magnitude.

^{3}, a mass equivalence of ~2.03 x 10

^{-31}kg/m

^{3}, which is 48 orders of magnitude less than absolute density at 6.693 x 10

^{17}kg/m

^{3}.

^{}

^{ }

### Scale

The term **scale** as used in this work, means the relative magnitude of natural **size** and **quantity** between the smallest and largest objects in nature.

Natural size and quantity of substance are two of the elementary physical properties of quantum matter and energy particles. Size is based entirely on substance and number.

The individual fermionic matter and charge shell volumes can only add together into larger and larger collections.

Universal space is hypothesized as the bosonic addition of ~0.79N zomons.

### The Neu Number of Common Objects

Object | Description | Neu Number | Order of Magnitude |
---|---|---|---|

Neutron | The Quantum SpinRise Matter Whole | 1 | 0 |

Electron | The Inverted Type I Matter Membrane | 0.000544 | 10^{-4} |

Plasm | The Contained Type II Matter | 0.000833 | 10^{-4} |

Proton | The Type I Matter Core | 0.998623 | 10^{-1} |

Hydrogen 1 | The First Atom | 0.999167 | 10^{-1} |

Atoms | hydrogen 1 – uranium 238 | 1 – 238 | 0 – 10^{2} |

Neucleons | neutron, H2, He3 | 1 – 3 | 0 |

Molecules | 2 – 5000 | 0 – 10^{3} | |

1 kilogram | platinum/iridium artifact | ∼5.970 401 076 x 10^{26} | 10^{26} |

Human | 70 kg (~ 42 octillion neus) | 4.18 x 10^{28} | 10^{28} |

Smallest naturally rounded solar body | Rhea, 2.3×10^{21} kg (~0.04% earth) | 1.37 x 10^{48} | 10^{48} |

The Moon | 7.35×10^{22} kg (~1.2% earth) | 4.39 x 10^{49} | 10^{49} |

The Earth | 5.9736 x 10^{24} kg – local 1 g-rise/spinfield theater | 3.57 x 10 ^{51} | 10^{51} |

Jupiter | 317 earth number | 1.13 x 10^{54} | 10^{54} |

Smallest deuteron burning star | brown dwarf, ~4,000 earth number | 1.47 x 10^{55} | 10^{55} |

Smallest helium burning star | red dwarf, ~25,000 earth number | 9.0 x 10 ^{55} | 10^{55} |

The Sun | local helium burning stellar furnace, ~330,000 earth number | 1.19 x 10^{57} | 10^{57} |

Smallest electric supercell core | stellar "black hole," ~3 solar number | 3.56 x 10^{57} | 10^{57} |

Milky Way electric supercell core | central "black hole," ~4.1 million solar number | 4.87 x 10^{63} | 10^{63} |

Large electric supercell core | "black hole" TON 618 ~66 billion solar number | 7.85 x 10^{67} | 10^{67} |

The Milky Way Galaxy | Our local matter/energy factory, ~300 billion solar number | 3.57 x 10^{68} | 10^{68} |

Large Cluster of Galaxies | ~5 quadrillion solar number (5 x 10^{15}) | 5.6 x 10^{72} | 10^{73} |

Cosmic Whole | universal open hollow with ~500 billion embedded galaxies | 3.0 x 10^{79} | 10^{79} |