1. In Current Science, energy is the ability to do work.
A fixed quantum of energy (~939.565 379 MeV, ~1.505 349 631 x 10-10 Joules) is one of five absolute properties of the two primal movement/energy forms spin and rise. When the two absolute movement/energy forms are linked, their combined absolute properties creates a fixed quantum of matter with a mass equal to ~1.674 929 351 x 10-27 kg, in the form of three elementary particles with an invariant topology and a fixed distribution (0.998,623u, 0.000,544u, 0.000,833u) of mass.
In this model only de-linked primal movement/energy forms are counted as energy. Primal linked energy forms are counted as matter. Their combined mass value in the universe is equal to the integer N.
There are only five forms of de-linked movement/energy in nature, three from spin and two from rise. Each is a elementary form of nature. The five energies appear from the de-linkage of 0.000833u of neutron plasm spinrise matter [3a] with the little bang:
- [6+] positive electric charge shells – 0.5 x 0.000833u absolute (1st Law) spin movement/energy in a fixed volume shell surrounding the matter core [1b] (proton).
- [6-] negative electric charge shells – 0.5 x 0.000833u absolute (1st Law) spin movement/energy in a mirror split shell, equal in volume to the proton electric shell, surrounding the the inverted matter membrane [2b] (electron)
-  photons – radiation (free 2nd Law spin movement/energy bubbles carried by space at the accelerating speed of space) made from: a) nuclear radiation (gamma rays), from various nuclear interactions b) atomic radiation (x-rays – visible), from electric field interactions between electrons and nuclei c) thermal radiation (infrared – radio), from atomic and molecular vibrations.
-  zomons – space quanta – ~2/3u avg. absolute (1st Law) rise movement/energy pulses expanding and diffusing-in- place at the accelerating speed of absolute movement.
-  motion – kinetic energy – ~1/3u avg. (2nd Law) rise movement/energy bound to matter.
Each of the five forms of energy can be considered as belonging to one of two types:
- 1st law type energy, or intrinsically accelerating with time energy. The two fixed volume electric dipole charge shells and expanding & diffusing-in-place zomons are 1st law type energy.
- 2nd law type energy, or intrinsically non-accelerating energy with time. Photons of radiation and the kinetic energy carried by the momentum of matter are 2nd law type energy.