Atomic Hydrogen & The Birth of Light
The Electric Interaction
Whereas the parent neutron was completely neutral, with no evidence of any electric charge, the children proton and electron are both now enveloped with equal and opposite electric charge shells. Topologically this is the birth of electricity.
Each of the two equal and opposite electric charge shells, is surrounded by equal and opposite “electric fields” extending into space, that project an “electromotive” force, which strongly attracts unlike charges, and equally, strongly repels like charges. This means, protons and electrons will strongly attract each other, while protons will strongly repel other protons, and electrons will strongly repel other electrons.
The strength of the fields represents an “electric potential energy” that has an exact kinetic energy equivalent. This means, that any reduction of electric potential energy, is accompanied by the addition of kinetic energy, usually by orbital motion transferred to an atomic electron. The electric fields are considered by Neu Theory to be the strongest force in nature.
A field can be defined as a region of influence, that exerts a force on an object with a similar field. A force is a physical push, pull, or twist. A field at any place of its influence can be mathematically represented by a “vector” arrow indicating the magnitude and direction of the force that would be experienced by a “force unit” at that location. The force causes the object to move in the direction represented by the arrowhead with an acceleration (changing velocity) based on the magnitude of the field at that place, and the mass of the object itself. A field is an example of “action at a distance.”
Neu Theory recognizes only two force fields in nature, the electric field and the magnetic field. The matter spinfield is not considered a true force field, but is instead, a field effect on matter and light.
The electric (and magnetic) force ,varies in strength with the inverse square of distance from the source. This means, if the distance is doubled, the strength of the field is reduced to one-half. There is no end in space to a force field, in principle, it will extend forever. However, there is a practical limit, as beyond a certain distance, the field will essentially reduce in strength to a value where it will have no discernable effect, on the motion of a test object with a similar field.
This is the case with the ejected electron, as its initial emission velocity quickly takes it out of effective range of the proton’s attractive charge. This initial separation, is the cause of electric potential energy. The free proton and free electron have become “ions”, and this free state is called a “plasma.”
There is a perpetual one to one relationship with protons and electrons in the universe. Each proton is entitled to one electron, and any electron will do as they are all identical. The only time there is an exception to this balance is during the brief moment of time when a positron exists, after its made, and prior to its annihilation by an electron. This is described in 4. The Neucleon Clusters Hypothesis.
Eventually some other free electron ion with its naked charge, will come within range of the proton ion’s naked charge, and their mutual attraction will bring both close enough to make an neutral atom of hydrogen, along with a photon of light. The atomic bond is the result of electric attraction, the strongest force field in nature.
The Electro-Kinetic Atomic Bond & the Birth of Light
We now examine the process by which a proton and an electron combine to make the first stable atom of nature, hydrogen (H1), and also make a photon of light.
Visualize a free proton [1b] in space in a frame of reference with its spin “up’ and its north magnetic pole also up, parallel to its spin. The proton with its positive charge layer and field, exerts a powerful force, an omni-directional “tractor” beam through space, indicating it requires an electron [2b], with an opposite negative charge layer and field to fulfill some kind of fundamental physical need. This is a force of attraction. Any free electron within range, will answer this call and come closer. The initial velocity of the electron will determine what happens next:
- At high velocities – relative to the proton which can be considered to be at rest – the electron’s trajectory will be changed, depending on its initial speed, and how close to the proton it gets, but it will “flyby”, and keep going away from the proton core. The positive core will have a suitable reaction as the electron departs. The electric field interactions causes a photon of light to be made, and carried along with space in a certain direction (bremsstrahlung radiation).
- At ultra high velocities – approaching the speed of light – the electron may collide with the proton breaking it into pieces. The electron never breaks. This was done in the 1960’s with the SLAC experiments at Stanford University. The interpretation of the results of the experiment was the beginning of the “quark” hypothesis.
- At a low enough initial velocity, the electron will be captured by a proton, making an atom of hydrogen. At the moment of capture a photon of light is made and carried along with space in a certain direction.
Prior to its capture, there are two general directions the electron can come from, somewhere from the northern, or somewhere from the southern magnetic hemispheres of the proton.
The free electron always travels in the direction of its closed hole opening, which is always a north magnetic pole, with its spin always anti-parallel to its magnetic polarity and its direction of motion. This is an observed property of free electrons (and electric current) that never changes.
Once the electron comes close enough to be captured by the proton’s electric field, the electron’s axis of rotation aligns itself with the axis of rotation of the proton. The spins and magnetic polarity of both objects are now aligned with each other.
There are two possibilities corresponding to the two general directions of arrival, parallel or anti-parallel:
- If the electron arrives from the north, its spin direction is the same as the proton (parallel), and its magnetic polarity is opposite to the proton (anti-parallel), with both north poles facing each other. This north-north alignment creates magnetic repulsion between the two objects.
- If the electron arrives from the south, its spin direction is opposite to the proton (anti-parallel), and its magnetic polarity is the same (parallel) as the proton’s, with the electron’s north pole facing the proton’s south pole. This north-south alignment creates a magnetic attraction between the two objects. Because of this magnetic attraction, the electron can “park” itself a little closer to the proton than in the magnetic repulsion condition where it must “park” a little further away. The little closer condition is the “ground” state of hydrogen. The difference in energy levels between the two parking stalls results in what is known as the “hyperfine” splitting of the hydrogen spectrum. The photon emitted by the ground state is very slightly more energetic and smaller.
Figure 3.4, is a topological diagram showing the ground state of the hydrogen atom. This is the atomic b-state of nature. The free proton and free electron is the ionic b-state.
The Hydrogen Atom
The hydrogen atom is the topological prototype for all future atomic structure.
The word topology is used so frequently by Neu Theory, that it is worth restating what is meant by the term. Topology, is simply the natural shape of a physical form and its relationship with other physical forms, disregarding physical size. Each physical shape is conserved, and has an individual topology with physical properties that can only add.
The boxed numbers in Figure 3.4 symbolize the different fundamental shapes of nature that make atomic hydrogen. The diagrammatic placement of the shapes, relative to each other, and as parts of the whole, is their topological structure.
Symbol [1b], is the proton core shown with the color black, with a spin-up orientation and a north-up magnetic field . If colors are used in a diagram the presence of a magnetic field is shown in green. The proton is surrounded by a positive electric charge shell [6+], and a positive electric field [7+], both shown with the color red symbolic of spin energy.
Symbol [2b], is the electron shown with the color black, with a spin-down orientation and a north-up magnetic field . The electron’s hole opening and its north magnetic pole are pointing towards the proton’s south magnetic pole. The electron is surrounded by a negative electric charge shell [6-] shown with the color red. The dynamic electron’s negative electric field [7-] also in red, is shown bending (changing from a ball into a shell shape) around the proton’s spherical positive electric field, and topologically closing, at this moment, above the proton’s north magnetic pole. The electric fields are topological shapes that are conserved.
All eight live areas of the electron’s negative electric field are on the inside facing the eight positive live areas of the proton’s electric field. Each live area is symbolic of one eighth of total surface area. This means that physically, the outer portion of the atomic electron’s electric field shell becomes neutral as all the negative electric field is now focused inward attracted to the proton’s positive electric field.
Note: The number of live area pairs shown is purely symbolic and for diagrammatic convenience, instead of eight, one could use eighty, or any other number. What is important is that there is always the same number of live area pairs, and they represent a broken connection between two complete surfaces.
The Electric Hollow
The volume between the two electric fields, symbol  is called the electric hollow. The electric hollow is a shell shape that is formed by the two electric fields, it has no independent existence without them.
The eight live areas of the proton’s positive electric field shell [7+] try to “touch” the eight live areas of the electron’s negative electric field shell [7-]. There is a one-to-one relationship between the two topological surfaces and each number represents exactly one eighth of a specific geographic portion of the surface area. This topological relationship was established at the moment of shearing during the little bang, and is permanently imprinted.
The electron’s eight live areas, have all migrated inward facing the core. The strongly attracted positive and negative “live areas” try to connect but physically cannot match up with each other. This is because, similar to a “unzipped” spherical zipper, all eight uniquely numbered broken fiber areas of the electron’s electric field representing eight unique portions of the electrons surface area, would have to flip over the same unique number broken fiber areas of the proton’s charge shell to make the connection, but this is not possible unless the electron membrane – the physical source of one half of the electric field – also flips over the proton core. The electric membrane tries, but just cannot get close enough to flip over the electric proton.
Prior to bonding as hydrogen, the strong attraction between the two objects causes them to move together at an accelerating rate. The heavy proton core moves a little, the lighter electron ball moves a lot. When the electron gets close enough to the proton to be within bonding range it finds a stable “orbital” and “parks” itself there with a speed that equals one half of the potential energy of the electric field.
At the moment of parking, a topological closing of the negative electric field shell around the positive core occurs, creating a new fundamental physical form the electric hollow , and also emits another newly created fundamental physical form, the photon , a commemorative beacon of light to announce the atomic union.
The electric hollow contains the residual potential energy of the electric field, and maintains a stable physical gap with an electric potential between the “stationary” the core and the dynamic electron. Visually one can imagine that the electric hollow contains “bottled up” potential energy. Where before, the electric fields extended an indefinite extent, now, both fields are topologically locked up in a finite atomic volume. The electric hollow contains the remainder of the electric field potential energy after the photon has been emitted.
The radiant (spin) energy of the photon is equal to the kinetic (rise) energy of the electron’s orbital. This is a significant physical moment, as 1st law kinetic energy is being created by converting through neutralization, an equal amount of electric potential energy, into a free spin energy bubble (a photon of 2nd law radiant energy) being transported by space. It is important to remember, that no “red” energy has been converted into “blue” energy. The total amount of spin and rise energy in the universe remains constant. The red energy just changed from red potential into red radiant, the color and total amount of energy did not change. The addition of “blue” 1st law kinetic energy to the electron orbital, comes from the change between a 1st law form of red energy into a 2nd law form of red energy.
The dynamic movement of the electron, with its topological inversion, does not allow for its electric “live areas” to physically match and “connect” with the proton’s “live areas” without “crossing” themselves. Instead the electron does a perpetual one-way “dance” around the core, trying to match up its dynamic negative electric live area with the core’s "stationary" positive electric live area, and in the process creates a stable orbital that maintains the atomic physical size. The core’s positive live areas, are unable to topologically follow the dynamic electron negative live areas as they “whip” around the core. Instead the static positive field extends up towards the hollow “surface” made by the negative live areas.
The dynamically maintained orbital hollow surface becomes a common field potential neutralization boundary. Below this boundary, towards the core, the residual electric field potential remains. Above this boundary, towards space, there is no electric field potential. The volume between the neutralization boundary and the proton’s charge shell is the electric hollow. The residual electric potential energy remains bottled up with the electric hollow for the life of the atomic structure.
The size of the electric hollow is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy carried by the electron which is equal to the amount of potential energy reduction of the electric field between the charge shells. The energy reduction takes place in discrete steps. The ground state reduces the potential energy to one half its quantum value. The amount of potential energy reduction is equal to the energy of the photon that is created. The first stable structure is atomic hydrogen-1 the b-state of nature.
The G-Rise Spinfield
Symbol  is graphically shown by two black dotted circles. The inner circle represents the atom’s accelerating g-rise “surface”, and the outer circle is symbolic of the spinfield “hollow volume” that extends into space.
The inner circle is placed at the outside limits of the electron’s electric field shell, and represents the volume or physical “size” of the neutral hydrogen atom, approximately 1.06 x 10-10 meters in diameter. The circle is shown with the color black, to symbolize that there is no electric force beyond this boundary, and is shown dotted, to symbolize that unlike the solid black surface of a proton or electron matter ball, there is no “hard” boundary here. The g-rise at the surface of the hydrogen atom is the physical effect caused by the combined masses of the proton and the electron acting with this spherical volume and is approximately equal to an acceleration of 7.7×10-18 m/s2.
The outer dotted circle represents the spinfield hollow volume and is shown with the color black as the spinfield effect is caused by the g-rise of neutral spinrise matter. The spinfield is not a force of nature, it is a physical effect of nature. The circle is shown dotted, because there is no definite size to a spinfield, but there is a practical limit to its effect. The spinfield of one hydrogen atom is minute in size, but it is a physical presence that cannot be topologically removed, and can only add with other spinfields.
Symbol  is space energy (zome) shown with a light shade of blue. Zome is an isotropic movement of free rise energy at the accelerating speed of light. Space everywhere in the universe is departing and arriving, perpendicular to matter and charge, at the accelerating speed of light. The “blue” space energy exists everywhere, except where there is “black” spinrise matter or, a “red” electric charge shell. The acceleration direction of space energy is opposite the acceleration direction of matter and in-line with the direction of acceleration of electric charge.
This is completely different than the traditional view of space as a pre-existing nothing (the vacuum). The Neu Theory model requires that there be no space (accelerating free rise movement/energy) anywhere within the volume of matter, or within the volume of an electric charge shell. Matter and charge have stable (the free neutron is unstable) intrinsic volumes that are embedded in zome, with discrete boundaries between all three objects. The “colors” of matter, charge and zome don’t mix. However, the “black” spinfields, the “red” electric fields, and the “green” magnetic fields, are projected into, and co-exist with the “blue” of space. The direction of space movement/energy is always “straight”, never “bent”, irrespective of the intensity and direction of the underlying field projections.
The Electron Orbital
Symbol  represents the dynamic motion of the electron. We can calculate the kinetic energy carried by the electron’s motion, and we can infer a topological shape to its negative electric charge and electric field, but we can only speculate on how the electron moves as it orbitals the positive core.
We start by assuming a fixed spin/magnetic alignment between the two objects, meaning as the electron moves in its bound orbital, its intrinsic spin and magnetic vectors, always remain aligned (parallel or anti-parallel) with the proton’s spin and magnetic vectors. This means, the electron’s momentum vector no longer remains aligned with its spin/magnetic axis as it did when it was free, and is now allowed to point in any direction.
There are three general forms of orbital motion we can imagine the electron might take:
- the electron could move in an equatorial orbital
- the electron could move in a polar orbital
- the electron could move in some in between orbital. In all three conditions, the electron’s spin axis are assumed to remain aligned with the proton’s nuclear spin axis. This doesn’t prevent the electron’s spin axis from precessing but the two axes remains aligned.
The intuitive preference by the writer, is that the polar orbital is somehow the preferred choice, but this is only speculation. The electron could have arrived at any latitude, and once spin/magnetic alignment was established by rotation of the electron’s axis, the initial direction of arrival, could result in an orbital halfway between equatorial and polar or something else.
Symbol  is a photon of light. With the synthesis of the photon, nature’s artistic pallette is complete. Nothing else is required, and everything, including you and me, is made using only eleven types of fundamental physical forms.
The photon is a very ordinary object and there are lots of them. By some estimates, a cubic meter volume of inter galactic space contains many billions of photons, that come from all directions as they pass through this volume, and through each other. Each photon is a unique entity that comes from a unique atomic event, has a unique one-way direction of travel, and a unique life history.
The hydrogen photon, that is made when a free electron goes directly into the ground state, has a spin energy value of 13.6 eV. This energy gives the photon a wavelength (physical diameter in Neu Theory) of 9.11 x 10-8 meters, and a frequency at 3.28 x 109 cycles per second. The term “wavelength” is used purely for historical convenience. Neu Theory does not consider the photon an “electromagnetic wave”, but rather, a free spin energy bubble with a definite size being carried by space.
The diameter of the hydrogen atom is approximately 1.06 x 10-10 meters, making the diameter of the hydrogen photon at 9.11 x 10-8 meters, more than 800 times larger. This large relative size implies that the photon bubble is not made “inside” the atom, it is formed “outside” the atom. A simple way of visualizing this to imagine the proton’s and electron’s electric fields, which at one time extended indefinitely into space, have now become confined within the electric hollow. The potential energy of the electric field contained in the electric hollow, has been reduced to one half its maximum potential, and the other one half has been converted into the energy of the photon. The orbital kinetic energy of the electron is exactly equal to the photon’s radiant energy.
Imagine the photon as a “thin” bubble of spin energy that is a isotropic closure movement at the non-accelerating speed of light. This means, that unlike the isotropic closure speed of an electric charge energy shell, which continuously accelerates with time, and thus maintains its energy (the 1st law of thermodynamics), the closure speed of the “radiant” bubble, does not accelerate, and thus loses energy with time. The closure motion of a photon is subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Ironically, the photon bubble is still closing at the speed of light, but at the speed of light that existed at the historical moment of its birth, not the moment by moment increasing speed of light caused by natural acceleration. Spin after spin, the photon’s energy is slightly less, and it takes just a little longer (relative to current accelerating time), for the photon to spin close itself. The photon is physically getting bigger and thus carries less energy. This is the phenomena of “redshift.”
The energy of a photon is directly related to its physical size. More energetic photons are smaller and less energetic photons are larger. Size is related to frequency. The more often a photon closes during one second of its space travel, the more energy it contains. This is Planck’s “E = hv” relationship between energy and frequency. The 13.6 eV of spin energy must make a photon with a specific size.
One half of the total potential energy of the electric field remains topologically outside the hydrogen atom. It is this potential energy that condenses into the photon bubble, with a starting wavelength (diameter) of 9.11 x 10-8 m, that is also topologically outside the atom. Part of the electric field disappears (becomes neutralized), and the photon appears in its place.
At the moment of its birth, the photon envelops its parent atom, however the photon is a space object and is immediately carried along by space at the accelerating speed of space. Right after its birth, the moving photon’s spin energy bubble is penetrated by atomic matter. The hydrogen atom consists of the spinning proton core and the spinning orbital electron. The core can be considered as stationary with its spin axis providing a reference cosmic direction, however, the electron can be anywhere in its orbital at the moment of photon birth.
The two penetrations “imprint” the photon with the spin axis of the nucleus and a direction of departure from the electron. It is hypothesized by the Neu Theory model that the photon departs in a direction that is directly opposite to the electron’s location in the orbital, specifically meaning the photon direction of travel vector can be any spherical direction relative the nuclear spin axis.
The penetrations through the bubble by the electron and proton do not “pop” the closure energy of the photon bubble. After transit, the bubble just closes back in on itself. The momentary “holes” are imprinted as “memory” in the bubble. This is hypothesized as the “polarization” of light.
To review, the nuclear spin axis imprint on the photon bubble can point in any direction relative to the photon’s direction of travel. The model does not consider the photon to physically spin or rotate around this axis, as its closure energy is considered isotropic. When the nuclear spin axis imprints of all the photons in a beam are all pointed in the same direction, the beam is said to be fully polarized.
Photons have other well observed properties:
- diffraction: The breaking up of a beam of light into a transverse series of dark and light bands or colored spectra by the edge of an opaque body or a narrow aperture.
- refraction: The phenomenon of light being deflected in passing obliquely through the interface between one medium and another or through a medium of varying density.
- reflection: The ability of a beam of light to “bounce” or reflect off certain material surfaces. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
- transmission: The ability of light to travel or pass through a “transparent” medium, e.g., glass.
It is not within the scope of this work to discuss these properties in detail.