NEU Theory

## NEU Theory

The Nature of Physical Reality

# Natural Acceleration - The Forces of Nature

### The Natural Accelerations

For a long time humans have asked the question, what is motion? What causes things to move? From this question came the concept of force.

The scientific definition of force comes from Newton, and is anything that causes a change in the motion of a physical body. The amount of the change (the effect) is the measure of the force. The question then became what are the forces in nature that cause a change in motion.

First, we need to be clear what is meant by force and effect. What is the difference? In our ordinary human physical experience a force is a push or repulsion; a pull or attraction; a twist (torque). An effect is what happens after the force is applied. We move faster or slower, we fall down, we turn around, we feel internal stress.

In the view of current science, there are only 4 fundamental forces in nature; gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear and weak nuclear. Using Big Bang cosmology, it is believed that in the beginning (birth of the universe) the four fundamental forces were united, and only separated into the ones we see now when the universe started to cool down.

In the Neu Theory model, there is only one fundamental or primal force in nature. This is uniform universal acceleration or the natural acceleration of the two primal movement/energy quantities.

Natural acceleration generates two primal forces, spin compression pressure, and rise expansion pressure. Both primal forces arise from the two fundamental movement/energy quantities, spin & rise. Both primal forces always act in exactly opposite directions, towards a state of dynamic balance. This is an initial postulate made by the theory. It is hypothesized that there are equal amounts of both primal forces present in the universe, maintaining a cosmos in homeostasis with a definable physical form.

All the ordinary forces and effects of nature, that we as humans experience, arise from different forms of the two primal forces, as they perpetually accelerate nature’s matter and energy forms. In the Neu Theory model these become the 4 natural accelerations, and the four primary forces of nature.

Each form of natural acceleration is accompanied with a measurable synergy projection into space.

In the Neu Theory cosmos, the 4 accelerations are universally synchronized with the current speed of light. This means that the “now” of observers that exist billions of light years apart, is in principle concurrent. All observers in the universe synchronously accelerate together, experiencing uniform natural forces, the intensity of which is based entirely on number.

In the Neu Theory model the “forces” we commonly call gravity, magnetism and electricity are not considered “fundamental” by themselves. They are secondary forces caused by the underlying natural acceleration of a physical body. Natural physical acceleration pressure is the primary force, the synergy fields are secondary forces and effects projected into space.

The following table and diagram lists the 4 natural accelerations or the “g-movements”, their perpetual one-way direction and value, and their accompanying synergy fields with forces & effects.

##### Natural Accelerations Table
 # Natural Acceleration(g-movement) Direction(one-way only) Valuec = speed of light Movement/Synergy Fields Forces Effects 1 g-spin of matter (all cores & electron membranes) right hand rule = c • magnetic fields • attraction• repulsion• torque • motion• rotation• spin/alignment 2 g-rise of matter(all cores, membranes & plasm) ← ≤ c •  < c, spinfields•  = c, hyper-spinfields • push• spinfield effects • displacement• free fall• orbits 3 g-fall of charge shells(< c, atomic shields)(= c, supercore shields) → ≤ c • electric fields • compression• attraction• repulsion • containment• motion• orbitals• electric hollow• photons 4 g-rise of zomons(~ 0.87N) → = c • inertia field• dynamic space• physical distance• cosmic volume • push • rest/uniform motion (Newton’s 1st law)• deceleration of neutral matter• acceleration of charged matter• redshift of photons Figure 3.7 – The Forces of Nature[/caption]

## The “G” Movements

The “g” movements are the four natural physical accelerations; two with matter objects, and two with energy objects. Each g movement is accompanied with a synergy field.

### 1. G-Spin/Magnetism

G-Spin/Magnetism is fundamental physical form of nature  in the Neu Theory model.

G-spin becomes a measure of the rate at which force is released into nature, and is proportional to Planck’s constant “h”. In the Neu theory model g-spin becomes a measure of the uniform rate of natural acceleration. The perpetual g-spins of matter cores and membranes are “accelerating ticks” of nature’s quantum clocks.

The neutron, proton and electron have a magnetic field, in the shape of a donut (ball w/ 1 hole), surrounding the spinning objects. See Figures 0.7 and 3.8. This is a movement/synergy field, that projects a magnetomotive force into space, that decreases in strength inversely with the square of the distance away from the surface. The magnetic dipole is permanently aligned with the quantum spin axis. The magnetic strength, and north/south polarity of the spin axis, is permanently fixed by nature.

##### Neutron G-Spin

In the Neu Theory model, uniform universal acceleration of the spin movement/energy part of matter at absolute density, causes the neutron cell core to physically rotate. This physical rotation is called g-spin. Both the neutron cell membrane and the neutron cell plasm do not rotate. This changes after spontaneous neutron transformation (the little bang) when the cell membrane detaches from the core, inverts, and shrinks into the spinning electron ball. Figure 3.8 – Neutron Spin/Magnetism[/caption]

It is hypothesized, that there is no “friction” between the three discrete parts of the neutron cell, specifically between the Type I matter spinning core, and the Type II matter of the non-spinning plasm that surrounds it. Despite the enormous densities of the two substances, the cell plasm does not “slow down” core spin, and the spinning core does not impart any “torque” to the plasm. The Type I matter cell membrane that contains the Type II plasm matter, is a thin sheet of liquid matter at absolute density also without rotation.

The reason the cell membrane and the cell plasm do not rotate is because they have an additional degree of freedom which allows them to absorb uniform universal acceleration by a change in physical size. The cell plasm matter is allowed to change density with the overall size of the neutron, while the liquid cell membrane (which always remains at a constant volume and density) is allowed to stretch into a thinner or thicker sheet of Type I matter, making the overall neutron size bigger or smaller. The neutron core, with its ball shape at an absolute density, has already reached its minimum geometric volume, and therefore does not have this additional degree of freedom. After transformation the neutron membrane shrinks into the electron ball, loses its ability to change size, and also starts to spin.

There are two ways by which we can visualize the rotation of the core. One provides a solid model, and the other a liquid model. Neu Theory prefers the liquid model.

##### Solid Model

In the solid model, the neutron core spinrise can be visualized as a ball of rigid matter with a right hand spin around an axis of rotation, and analogous to the Earth, spins fastest at the equator and the slower near the poles. The surface speed at the neutron core’s equator, is maintained at the constant accelerating speed of light, but drops below light speed with latitude, reaching “zero” at the north and south poles of the spin axis. The solid ball, resembles the behavior of many ordinary objects that we are all familiar with. For example, it is easy to imagine a rigid spinning wheel like the tires on a car, or a potter’s wheel. The speed of rotation gets slower as one approaches the spin axis.

##### Liquid Model

In the liquid model, the neutron core spinrise can be visualized as a ball of liquid matter with a right hand spin around an axis of rotation. The closing speed throughout the ball is maintained at the uniformly accelerating speed of light. As the speed of rotation is constant, it is the time of rotation, at different portions of the ball that varies.

The time of rotation, of portions of this liquid ball of spinning matter, vary with their geographic location on the surface of the ball, and their geometric location within the body of the ball. The time of rotation is the longest at the equatorial surface and keeps getting shorter and shorter, approaching zero near the spin axis.

The spinning ball of liquid has the dynamics of a spherical vortex, where the closure speed at c is maintained in tighter and tighter circles as one approaches the spin axis.

We begin with the presumption that nature behaves in the simplest possible manner, yet we also believe there must be some purpose for this behavior. This writer has chosen the liquid model for the following reason:

A one-way spin of a liquid drop, at the uniformly accelerating speed of light, with the time of rotation getting smaller and smaller, as one departs from the equator towards the two poles of the spin axis, provides an intuitive understanding of physical closure, indicating how the ball shape and physical size, are naturally formed by the dynamics of the two absolute movement/energy quantities as they link together as spinrise matter and accelerate.

What the solid and liquid models both have in common, is that the period of rotation at the equator is the same, and equal to the circumference of the ball, divided by the uniformly accelerating speed of light. The time of equatorial rotation is called quantum g-spin, and is common to all quantum matter objects of the same size. As the neutron core is hypothesized to be the same size as a proton, the quantum g-spin of both objects is calculated with a period of 1.764 366 x 10-23 seconds, which is equal to a frequency of 5.667 758 x 1022 revolutions per second.

##### The Magnetic Field

Magnetism is part of fundamental physical form .

The magnetic field is a physical movement/synergy form that is generated by the quantum spin of a primary matter object. The synergy field is a physical projection of magnetomotive force felt by other magnetic fields.

The spin/magnetic field has the topological shape of a donut (ball with one “tight” hole). The field is an open shape that emerges above the poles of the g-spinning surface of the core and extends through the plasm and the membrane into space decreasing in strength inversely with the square of the distance. By convention, the direction of the spin/magnetic field, meaning the direction the arrow symbol is pointing, is always towards a south magnetic pole.

The magnetic force creates a potential for motion between magnetic bodies. The motion is a transfer of kinetic energy, with the inertia of mass playing its part. After kinetic energy transfer, the magnetomotive potential is correspondingly reduced. The motion between quantum magnets usually results in a state of combined dynamic equilibrium between the objects, upon which the projection of the magnetic force disappears or is reduced.

Typically there are only four natural sources for spin/magnetic fields: the neutron cores, the proton cores, the electrons, and for a brief moment, the positron. However, it is hypothesized that any proton fragments made during high energy collisions are also spin/magnetic. The magnetic polarity of the fields is permanently aligned with the spin vector of the rotating object. Using the same north-up direction of the spin vector for all four objects; the magnetic fields of the neutron core and the electron have a north-down or anti-parallel alignment with the spin vector, while the magnetic field of the proton core and positron has a north-up or parallel alignment with the spin vector. See Figure 4. It is hypothesized that all proton fragments have a spin polarity similar to the proton.

The relative strength of the three primary magnetic fields is fixed. If we consider the strength of the neutron core’s magnetic field equal to -1.0 magneton ("-" = anti-parallel), the proton’s magnetic field is equal to +1.46 magneton ("+" = parallel), the electron’s magnetic field is equal to a much larger -960.9 magneton (anti-parallel), and the positron’s is equal in strength to the electron, but opposite in polarity at +960.9 magneton. The residual magnetism of atoms is mainly due to the electron’s magnetic field.

The magnetic force is an action at a distance field projection into space with attraction between unlike poles and a repulsion between like poles. The magnetic force also creates a torque (a physical rotation) between magnets. For example using bar magnets, if two repelling south magnetic poles are brought together and one of them is free to rotate, a torque force will arise that makes the free magnet rotate until its north pole is facing the fixed magnet’s south pole at which time the free magnet will be attracted to and move towards the fixed magnet and they will become one magnetic object with a net magnetic field.

Magnetic forces balance each other, adding in opposite directions, leaving a residual or no magnetic field with the composite object, but the underlying quantum magnetic forces never disappear – they are always present at the quantum matter spin surface.

As the neutron core, proton core, electron and positron balls spin at the uniformly accelerating speed of light, they project a magnetic force field with a fixed strength and north/south polarity, permanently aligned with their g-spin axis.

The neutron is the weakest of nature’s four primary magnets and is given the absolute field strength of one neu magneton (-1.0). (See Neu Mass & Charge Radius Table – Column W, for nuclide magnetic values)

The neutron core spin/magnetic polarity is similar to the Earth, as its north magnetic pole, just like current Earth, is at its south geographic pole, or “anti-parallel”. By convention the minus sign is assigned to distinguish the neutron from an object whose north magnetic pole is at its north geographic pole, or “parallel”. The spin/magnetic polarity of the electron is the same as the neutron core, they are both anti-parallel and thus assigned a minus sign. The spin/magnetic polarity of the proton core and the positron are both parallel and thus assigned a plus sign. See Figure 0.7 for relative spin/magnetic alignment.

The spin/magnetic field is a natural force field, which at the quantum level, physically resists g-spinning objects from physically touching one another by acting on their spin/magnetic fields. However given enough kinetic energy, as with high energy cosmic rays and particle colliders, the primary spin/magnetic fields are not strong enough to prevent physical contact between the g-spinning matter objects.

Magnetism is not a form of energy. Magnetism is a movement/synergy field, an emergent form created from the accelerating g-spin of quantum matter. When g-spin stops, as when the detached spinning electron becomes the attached non-spinning neutron membrane again, its magnetic field also ceases.

At a fundamental level, all forms of energy are forms of movement, and the spin/magnetic field is not a form of movement. The static spin/magnetic force field structure arises from the movement of something else, in this case the physical acceleration of matter.

The magnetic field donut shape is deformable, e.g., the Earth’s magnetic field is deformed by the solar wind of charged magnetic particles.

Magnetic fields act upon other magnetic fields by projecting a magnetomotive force. Matter objects, that have net magnetic fields, physically interact with each other.

The spin/magnetic force is an attraction between unlike poles, a repulsion between like poles (Fig. 3.9), and a torque that rotates the dipole axes until they align. The magnetic force of a primary object, can be measured as “torque resistance” that needs to be overcome, in order to “flip” (rotate 180 degrees) its g-spin axis.

Spin/magnetism is a dipole alignment and holding force, between quantum magnetic objects, that turns on when there is a lack of axial alignment, and turns off after alignment occurs. What remains afterwards, is a net residual magnetic field, with a north/south polarity and strength, shaped by the sum of the individual magnetic fields adding in two bipolar directions. Figure 3.9 – The Magnetic Force[/caption]

Neu Theory hypothesizes, that the strength of a quantum magnetic field is inversely related to its g-spin, meaning the smaller the g-spinning mass, the faster its quantum spin, and the stronger its magnetic field. As an example, the electron is approximately one twelfth (1/12) the diameter of the proton, spins approximately 12 times faster, and has a magnetic field that is six hundred and fifty eight (658) times stronger.

The magnetic dipole length, is the length of the spin axis of the matter object. For the proton, electron, and the positron this is considered to be true. For the neutron, the magnetic dipole length is hypothesized to be slightly larger than the axial diameter of the g-spinning core. As the mass of the three parts of the neutron cell is distributed over a much larger extended body, the neutron dipole length, is hypothesized to equal the axial diameter of an equivalent ball that would exist if all neutron mass, including the plasm, were at absolute density. This calculates to a dipole length of 1.684 44 x 10-15 m.

##### Magnetism and Electricity in Neu Theory

In the Neu Theory model, magnetism only exists with g-spin, and is discrete from electric charge. The original source of magnetism in nature is spinning quantum matter.

This is different than the current scientific paradigm, that magnetism is ultimately created by some electric charge, or fractional charges, that reside within the body of an object. It is believed, that first there has to be electric charge, only then can magnetism appear. Hence the current view, that “electromagnetism” is one fundamental force of nature.

The Neu Theory model identifies electric charge, as spin movement/energy that has been topologically, spherically split or “unzipped”, into two “mirrored” shells of equal volume, that surround the proton and electron. The electric charge shells are one-half 0.000833u of isotropic absolute spin movement/energy that do not physically rotate.

The neutron cell is completely neutral. In principle, there can be no electric charge (isotropic spin movement/energy) contained within any of the three parts of a neutron, as this would make it larger than a quantum unit. All scientific experiments performed to date searching for any electric charge within a neutron have failed. No indication of charge has ever been found and none ever will.

### 2. G-Rise/Spinfield

G-rise/spinfield, is the Neu Theory concept that replaces the current science concept of gravity.

Newton’s gravity is a universal force of attraction between matter objects that is directly proportional to mass and inversely proportional to the square of distance. It is gravity that makes objects fall. It is gravity that keeps satellites in orbit. Einstein added to Newton’s gravity with the concept that gravity is also a “bending” of space and time around a massive object, however the underlying concept of universal attraction remained.

In Neu Theory, what we experience as gravity is caused by the physical acceleration of quantum matter accompanied with two movement/synergy projections extending into space. The physical acceleration of matter is called g-rise, and the movement/synergy projection is called the spinfield. This is similar to magnetism, which is also a movement/synergy projection from the physical acceleration (g-spin). Both magnetism  and gravity  are an integral part of the quantum whole neutron, and the proton and electron quantum parts.

Neu Theory hypothesizes that the ultimate cause, or natural source, of the physical acceleration of matter is uniform universal acceleration acting on the static physical properties of matter. Figure 3.10 – The G-Rise Spinfield Form[/caption]

### The G-Rise of Matter

The g-rise of matter  is a physical acceleration pressure, a contact force with mutual physical displacement, when matter objects physically touch each other. We cannot see the physical acceleration of g-rise, as we experience its push. We continuously experience this everyday as our weight, by the earth pushing against us. If we were on the moon its push and our weight would feel a lot less. An accelerometer measures that “feeling” as the g-force.

G-rise, the first part of gravity, is a perpetual physical movement (acceleration) of the earth. The g-rise physical acceleration cannot be seen by our eyes. It can only be felt and measured.

The Spinfield, the second part of gravity, is two synergy accelerations projected into the space above the accelerating g-rise surface of matter. These two accelerations, also called g-rise & g-spin, have an effect on the motion on visiting bodies by changing their speed and direction, e.g., meteorites that “fall” to earth.

In Neu Theory, matter is the linkage of two equal primal physical quantities in nature, the discrete movement/energy forms spin and rise. Each physical quantity is completely defined by 6 absolute properties that are required by nature to be conserved.

Three first three absolute properties are: immortality 1, fixed value 2, and homogeneity 3. The linkage results in permanent homogenous matter with a fixed quantity of mass. These are the static properties of shape, size, substance, and structure.

The next three absolute properties are dynamic properties: movement fixed at the accelerating speed of light 4, a fixed one-way direction of movement 5, and isotropy of movement 6. When spin and rise energies are linked, they stop their primal absolute movements. The energies are no longer moving at the accelerating speed of light, and in their own natural direction. The linked energies have become the physical substance we call matter with mass, and Neu Theory calls spinrise.

As a homogenous physical substance spinrise matter responds to the uniform universal acceleration acting on its body as a whole, by projecting the physical acceleration effects of g-spin & g-rise, one from each form of linked energy.

It is hypothesized, that the locked isotropy of each absolute movement/energy form making spinrise, projects its own movement/synergy acceleration into space. In principle, spinrise matter contains equal amounts of synchronized absolute movement/energy, therefore, the spin movement/synergy and rise movement/synergy projections, are also synchronized and equal in value. This is the physical source of the spinfield projection.

It is locked spin movement/energy that makes the primary ball shape and size. It is locked rise movement/energy that gives the primary balls their physical mass. A physical equilibrium is reached, between the opposite acting spin and rise forces, making two types of matter. Type I matter with a fixed volume at an absolute density, and Type II matter with a variable volume and a variable density. The core and membrane are Type I and the neutron plasm is Type II.

The surface of all g-rising bodies, accelerate at a rate directly proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to their volume. Above the g-rising surface exist two movement/synergy fields, that are projected into space as the spinfield. The extent of influence of a spinfield into space is called its hollow volume.

Opposite to the current view that gravity is a universal force of attraction between matter, Neu Theory claims that the source of this natural phenomena is not attraction, but the collective g-rise pressure from a finite number of small g-rising primary matter objects acting together as one physical body. This collective push projects a collective spinfield with physical effects on other bodies. Large number g-rise/spinfields are where the physical effects become increasingly noticeable.

When g-rise remains below c, the spinfield velocities follows Einstein, Newton, Kepler rules.

When g-rise reaches c, as with the galaxy supercell core, a uniform velocity hyper-spinfield volume is projected. This topological projection is in addition to the normal spinfield, and provides a uniform rotational speed floor that extends to the outer regions of a galaxy and beyond. The uniform hyper-spinfield speed is based entirely on core number.

G-rise/spinfields begin with the three primary objects, the neutron, the proton, and the electron. There is no other source in nature. The g-rise/spinfield form (Figure 3.10) is topologically complete at the primary level and can never be changed or removed. The individual forms can only add into larger and larger number versions of this fundamental topological shape.

Nature provides a large, but finite, number of primary g-rise/spinfields to work with.

G-rise/Spinfields can only add, they can never be removed.

The key to understanding spinfields, requires understanding the nature of the two synergy accelerations that are projected into space by g-rising matter.

The two movement/synergy accelerations are a simultaneous rising-in-place (g-rise), and a bending-in-place (g-spin) projection that fills a spherical “hollow” of space around the g-rising body. In Fig. 3.10, the spherical hollow is shown as a dashed line around the g-rising object. The line is dashed to indicate that the hollow boundary is not a “hard” distance (height) above the g-rising surface, rather it is an “effective” distance. Within the hollow volume the direction of the spinfield accelerations dominate. The spinfield hollow volume is the extent of the "gravitational" effect exerted by a massive body.

Similar to the magnetic and electric fields, the two synergy accelerations of the spinfield are added on top of the existing universal background accelerations of nature: the g-rise and g-spin floor of the cosmic whole as one body of matter; and the g-rise floor of space. The “straight” free rise movement/energy of space itself is not bent or changed in the slightest by these topological additions.

The dynamics of the spinfield influence is based solely on the shape, mass and volume of the g-rising body. Imagine the g-rising surface as a spherically shaped stage, and the volume of space around it as an open-hollow theater. The open-hollow theater itself is considered to topologically move-in-place with time. The two synergy accelerations synchronously act together adding to the existing motion of visiting bodies.

The spinfield synergy accelerations have two synchronized physical effects on visiting bodies for the duration of the body’s visit within the spinfield hollow:

• Change in direction, an addition of the theater g-spin acceleration-in-place vector to the motion vector of the visiting body, by changing the body’s motion parallel to the spinfield, meaning parallel to the g-rising surface.
• Change in speed, an addition of the theater g-rise acceleration-in-place vector to the motion vector of the visiting body, by changing the body’s motion perpendicular to the spinfield, meaning perpendicular to the g-rising surface.

The value of the spinfield at any place above the spherical g-rising floor can be expressed by three quantities. Each is a vector with magnitude & direction.

• Orbital velocity – the speed of closure, at any height above the g-rising surface, required to maintain a stable orbit in the spinfield hollow. As an example, consider an ideal spherical earth without an atmosphere. Surface g-rise is 9.8 m/s2, or 1g. At 10 meters above the surface the orbital velocity of the spinfield is 9.7 kilometers per second and time of closure (one orbit) is 68.8 minutes. Once a small body begins moving in space – 10 meters above, and in any direction parallel to the surface of this ideal earth – and reaches a speed of 9.7 kilometers per second it will go into orbit. The earth’s spinfield will provide all the acceleration necessary to maintain closure. The orbiting body has to do nothing more to maintain a stable orbit. This free ride is a gift of nature from the perpetual in-place acceleration by the earth’s spinfield.
• Escape velocity – the speed of departure, from any height above the g-rising surface, required to leave the spinfield hollow. Again using earth as an example, the escape velocity from the surface is 11.18 kilometers per second.
• Terminal velocity – the speed of impact, from any spinfield hollow height to the g-rising surface. Again using an ideal earth without an atmosphere, the terminal velocity of an object “free falling” from the spinfield hollow boundary would be equal to the escape velocity of 11.18 kilometers per second.

#### Primary G-Rise

G-rise at the primary object level is a small pressure from small objects, but the pressure can only add, it never cancels. As the number of these small objects gets larger, the collective pressure becomes increasingly significant. As the number, volume, and pressure increase, the temperature and density correspondingly increase.

In Neu Theory, all g-rise calculations are based on conventional Newtonian dynamics, where g = Gm/r2. “G” is the gravitational constant (G = 6.67384×10-11 m3/kg/s2), “m” is the mass in kilograms, and “r” is the radius in meters. Einstein’s relativity adjustments are not made. In Neu Theory G is equivalent to the rise constant.

The calculated g-rise of an electron (and positron), the smallest matter objects in nature, is 0.13 x 10-7 m/s2, one twelfth the g-rise of the core.

The calculated g-rise of a proton core and a neutron core, with their constant mass and volume, is 1.57 x 10-7 m/s2.

The other two parts of the neutron, the membrane and the contained plasm have a constant mass, however their combined volume varies with the overall size and shape of the membrane cell, and the density of the plasm. Because of this the g-rise of the quantum whole neutron also varies. For example: a neutron with a diameter of 3.36 x 10-15 m (the diameter of a helium nucleus) has a calculated surface g-rise @ 3.96 x 10-8 m/s2, four times smaller than core g-rise. An ultra-cold neutron with a diameter of 1.0 x 10-7 m (the size of a virus) has a calculated surface g-rise @ 4.47 x 10-23 m/s2, 15 orders of magnitude smaller than core g-rise.

It is important to remember that in principle, there is no space (free rise energy) below the S3 surface of the neutron membrane despite its large size. Matter, charge, and space substance remain topologically discrete.

The g-rise of the free deuteron neucleon is 0.49 x 10-7 m/s2, and the g-rise of the free helion neucleon is 0.87 x 10-7 m/s2

When an electron bonds with a proton creating hydrogen-1, using the calculated atomic radius of 53 pm (53 x 10-12), the g-rise of the hydrogen atom is 3.97 x 10-17 m/s2, 10 orders of magnitude smaller than core g-rise.

#### G-Rise of Atomic Nuclides

The smallest stable nuclide g-rise is with the deuteron (H2) @ 0.49 x 10-7 m/s2, one third the g-rise of the core. See NeuMass & Charge Radii Table – Column AH, for nuclide g-rise values.

After Beryllium-9 with a g-rise @ 1.57 x 10-7 m/s2,  approximately the same as the core, all nuclides have a steadily increasing g-rise as the cluster cell number increases until Lead-208 (126 cells).

The largest stable nuclide g-rise is with Lead-208 @ 8.030 x 10-7 m/s2, more than five times larger than core g-rise. Lead-209 @ 8.031 x 10-7 m/s2 has the largest nuclide g-rise in nature, but is unstable. All other nuclides, stable or radioactive, have a smaller g-rise than Lead-208. A natural limit seems to have been reached.

#### G-Rise of Larger Objects

The physical acceleration of g-rise cannot be seen, it can only be felt or measured by an accelerometer device.

##### The Cosmological G-Rise Background

In the Neu Theory model, the cosmic whole as one body of accelerating matter, provides a natural g-rise background acceleration, as a floor. Based on a NASA estimate of the observed average density of “baryon” matter on a large scale (one amu per four cubic meters), and the total number of galaxies estimated to exist (500 billion), the model calculates a cosmic whole with the following physical properties:

• shape – spherical open hollow
• volume – 1.2 x 1080 m3
• radius – 3.2 x 1026 m
• neu number – 5.0 x 1079
• mass – 5.0 x 1052 kg
• g-rise – 3.2 x 10-11 m/s2.

The cosmological g-rise acceleration may be part of the reason galaxy clusters show large internal velocities yet remain stable. In such case, there would be no reason to hypothesize “dark” matter.

##### The G-Rise of Space

The object with the smallest g-rise in nature is nature’s largest object, space, a finite body of ∼ 0.87 N zomons. Based on an average mass equivalence of 9.34 x 10-31 kg per zomon, and an average volume of 4.6 m3, the model calculates a g-rise of ∼ 5.8 x 10-41 m/s2, which is 34 orders of magnitude smaller than core g-rise.

##### The G-Rise of Cosmic Objects
• The g-rise of the earth is ∼ 9.8 m/s2. This familiar push is considered 1 g.
• The g-rise of the moon is ∼ 1.6 m/s2, ∼ 0.165 g, one sixth the push of the earth.
• The g-rise of a white dwarf star, about the same size as the earth, ∼ 300,000 g.

It is hypothesized that g-rise will continue to increase with mass number until it reaches the uniformly accelerating speed of light @ 299,792,458 m/s and stay there. This is 30 million times the push of the earth. Similar to the g-spin limit, g-rise cannot get any faster. Once the g-rise physical movement reaches light speed (stellar supercells), that is it. Larger number collections (galaxy supercells) make no difference to this natural limit.

In the Neu Theory model, surface g-rise reaches light speed when the mass of the object is contained below its Schwarzschild radius. This radius is calculated by the formula 2Gm/c2.

In the Newtonian/Einstein gravitation concept, the Schwarzschild (Rs) radius is the radius of an imaginary sphere, such that, if the total mass of an object were to be compressed within that sphere, the gravitational pull would be so large that the escape velocity from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light, meaning, that the even light could not leave the surface.

It is currently believed that when the mass falls below the Schwarzschild radius it becomes a “black hole”. The current science hypothesis is that the mass of an object will continue to collapse becoming a “singularity” with unknown properties, and where the normal rules of nature may no longer apply.

The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to the mass. Accordingly, the mass of the Sun has a Schwarzschild radius of approximately 3.0 km, while the mass of the Earth gives it a Schwarzschild radius of only ∼9.0 mm, the size of a peanut.

##### Neucleon Collapse

In the Neu Theory model, g-rise at light speed begins when a large number of atomic nuclides, with individual positive electric charge shields, undergo a massive nuclide collapse and charge shield fusion. All nuclides collapse into one neucleon supercluster of deuterons, and neutrons with a finite size, below a common positive electric charge shield with a finite value and  thickness.

All the individual positive electric charge shields surrounding each individual nuclide, now, combine into one single positive electric “supercharge” shield, surrounding all the neucleons tightly clustered together into a ball at ∼0.74 absolute density, the density of Lead-208. What remains is a neutral spin/magnetic aligned deuteron and neutron cell “supercluster”. The neutral core with its positive electric shield is formed well below the Schwarzschild radius. For example, the Milky Way Galaxy’s calculated Schwarzschild radius is 12 million kilometers, while its neucleon supercluster has a calculated radius of ~1,580 kilometers, smaller than the radius of the moon.

The positive electric supercharge shield, reacts to the supernuclide core’s g-rise at light speed pressure (∼ 30 million g), by increasing electric tension within the isotropic spin energy supershield until it stabilizes to balance core g-rise. The individual normally fermionic charge shells of the deuterons have fused into one homogenous shell of isotropic spin movement/energy with a finite thickness. For the Milky Way the charge shell thickness is calculated at ~75 km.

It is estimated that nuclide collapse begins as low as 3 solar masses, a neumass number of 3.56 x 1057.
In the Neu Theory model, the nuclide collapse does not create a neutron star. A deuteron does not capture an electron, losing its charge, to become two neutrons resulting in two completely neutral bodies.

In the Neu Theory model, the original deuteron/neutron ratio of the collapsing nuclides, more or less remains the same with the supernuclide core. This leaves as many electrons outside the core as there are deuterons in the core.

If the collapsing nuclides were iron atoms (Fe56), with 30 neucleons (26 deuterons and 4 neutrons), they would create an electric/neutral ratio of 0.87:0.13 in the neucleon supercluster.

The largest g-rise objects in nature are the neucleon supercluster cores of super massive galaxies. Despite a size of billions of solar masses, the surface g-rise of the nuclide supercluster remains “maxed out” at ∼ 30 million g, only the Schwarzschild radius increases in size and the hyper spinfield value proportionately increases.

##### Electric SuperCells

After nuclide collapse, the atomic electrons, form a dense negative supercloud layer of mutually repelling tiny objects attracted to the positive supercharge shield surrounding the supercluster. The electrons are assumed to vibrate as a lattice near light speed in the cloud.

It is hypothesized that the electron supercloud layer starts at the “photon sphere”, 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius (3Gm/c2), and has a finite thickness based on the electron number and density.

The volume between the positive electric supercharge shield and the negative electron supercloud becomes the electric superhollow keeper of the remaining potential energy, topologically similar to a giant single cell atom.

The entire 4 part object, neutral neucleon supercluster, positive electric charge supershield, electric potential superhollow, negative electron supercloud, becomes an electric supercell with its own g-rise. For example, the g-rise of the Milky Way Galaxy supercell just above the electron supercloud is calculated to be ∼ 378,000 g. Electric supercells are nature’s largest batteries.

### Spinfields

Spinfields start at the primary level, as a topological projection above the surfaces of all protons, neucleons, and electrons. There are no other sources in nature.

Spinfields at the primary level are extremely weak, but they can only add. The primary spinfields add making atomic nuclides, the next level of spinfields. The spinfields of atoms add becoming the spinfields of molecules and larger collections. For any object there is only one collective spinfield. The spinfield is a physical extension into space by a g-rising object. As the g-rise number increases, the effects and range, of the spinfield will correspondingly increase.

Unlike the conventional concept of gravity, which is considered to be an attractive force with an infinite extension into space, the spinfield of Neu Theory, is a physical form with a finite extent, a topological projection into space with a limited effective range. This range of influence is called the spinfield hollow volume.

Whatever its initial strength, at some finite distance from the source, the spinfield effects of a smaller object, will disappear into the spinfield of a larger object, whose spinfield hollow will again disappear into the spinfield of another larger object. Ultimately, all spinfields will disappear into the g-rise open hollow volume of the cosmos.

For example, consider a spaceship orbiting within our moon’s spinfield while the moon orbits within the earth’s spinfield while the earth orbits within the sun’s spinfield while the sun orbits the Milky Way galaxy hyper spinfield.

Galaxies, including their smaller bound satellite galaxies, are nature’s largest coherent spinfield structures.
The spinfield topological bending-in-place always acts parallel to the closed g-rising topological surface it springs from, and remains dominant, until it merges and adds its hollow volume to the volume of a larger spinfield structure.

Beyond the spinfield hollow of a smaller body, the bending-in-place direction of the larger body’s spinfield becomes dominant. Within its spinfield hollow, the smaller body controls the behavior of satellites.

The spinfield of a body shapes a dynamic physical geometry that has an effect on other bodies that happen to come within its zone of influence. The dynamics of the spinfield can be understood by the orbital motion of bodies. Any place in a spinfield – measured as height from the center of the matter object – can be described with a natural orbital speed. In the simplest case of an elliptical, almost circular orbit, if another body possesses this speed in a direction parallel with the spinfield, it will maintain a stable orbit until disturbed by something else.

The value of a spinfield, is the escape velocity and orbital velocity of a test mass at any place above the g-rising surface of a body.

Calculating the escape velocity and orbital velocity of the primary spinfield around a proton, a neucleon or an electron has little practical meaning, but in principle, the spinfield around each of these primary objects is a very real phenomena, a complete physical form with static and dynamic properties. In nature, the primary spinfields of these objects can only add, unlike magnetic fields, which can balance each other, or opposite electric fields, which can neutralize each other.

It is the cumulative effect of these small spinfield additions, into bigger and bigger single form structures, that creates the large spinfields such as the planets, stars, and galaxies; and eventually the accelerating g-spin floor of the cosmic body as a whole.

##### Large Number SpinFields

It is hypothesized that the structure of a spinfield changes with increasing number. As the collective neu number gets larger, from planetary (1050) to galactic structures (1068), the dynamics of the spinfield, as expressed by the escape and orbital velocities, also change, becoming more complex. Different parts of the spinfield play with different rules.

The structure of spinfield hollows by massive objects (up to supercluster cores), is a uniform reduction in orbital velocity, proportional to the inverse square of height (1/r2) above the g-rise surface, until a floor is reached, where the orbital velocity becomes constant with no further reduction. In Neu Theory this is because, there is a background g-spin acceleration by the cosmos as a whole.

The spinfield theater reduces its effects within a reasonably well defined volume of space. It is hypothesized that the movement floor is reached when the g-spin acceleration of the spinfield hollow at that height reduces to the g-spin acceleration of the cosmic whole. In most spinfield hollows, as is the earth’s, this acceleration floor is never reached, as the entire hollow with its g-rising source becomes embedded as one object, in orbit within a larger spinfield/hollow structure.

The cosmic spinfield acceleration floor is reached only in the larger spinfield hollows of stars and galaxies. In principle the g-spin acceleration of the cosmic whole, extends all the way to the surfaces of quantum matter objects, but it is in the large structure of galaxy spinfield hollows, where the g-spin of the cosmic whole becomes noticeable.

It is observed that each galaxy has its own minimum orbital speed proportional to the mass of the “super massive black hole” at its center, and all stars, whatever there distance from the center, must maintain this speed. We see this occur in all galaxies.

It is hypothesized by Neu Theory that the minimum orbital speed of a galaxy spinfield is a “hyper” spinfield projection from the neucleon supercluster galactic core that is g-rising at the accelerating speed of light with a surface well below the Schwarzschild volume limit. The hyper spinfield projection is uniform from the Schwarzschild “boundary” to the outer regions of the galactic spinfield.

The Neu Theory supercluster cores are the “black holes” of current science. For all galaxies there is a direct relationship between the mass of the supercluster core and the orbital speed of the spinfield. The larger the core mass the larger the uniform hyper spinfield speed. It is this fixed orbital speed floor that is maintained by the supercluster core, plus the g-spin acceleration of the cosmic whole.

The topological meaning of an open shell is just that. In principle there is no end to a spinfield hollow, just an effective range before the physical effects of a larger spinfield hollow take over. A spinfield hollow can be said to end when the g-spin and g-rise accelerations reach the cosmic floor. In most spinfields this floor is never reached as the spinfield becomes embedded in another larger spinfield. In nature, smaller spinfield hollows are embedded in orbits within larger spinfield hollows, moons around planets, planets around suns, solar systems are embedded in orbits within the much larger galactic spinfield hollow around a dense galactic core.

The largest spinfield hollows are with small galaxies orbiting around a large galaxy as part of a local cluster. With the local galactic clusters the spinfield hollow form ends.

The large galactic super-clusters are not spinfield hollows, as the individual galaxies making up the cluster do not have a common center of rotation. The superclusters are g-rise hollows, without orbital motion around a common center. The individual galaxies maintain random velocities relative to each other effected by the interaction of all the individual galaxy spinfield hollows as a “gas” like body. The g-rise hollow cluster, maintains a long-term dynamic stable structure within a significant volume of cosmic “real estate”.

It is the g-rise acceleration of the cosmic whole, that maintains a floor to the random velocities of galaxies in a g-rising cluster. In this view the larger the cluster the faster the random velocity.

The cosmos itself becomes one topological volume, filled with a “honeycomb” of g-rising galaxy super-clusters, connected by sheets and filaments of galaxies, dust, and gas, surrounding relatively large volumes of space with little matter. Some of these “voids” (zome hollows), stretch billions of light years in diameter.

##### Uniform Orbital Speed

In the large number spinfields of galaxies, the spinfield rules dramatically change with distance from the center. As one gets a certain distance away from the center the stellar velocities no longer decrease following the Einstein/Kepler/Newton rules, instead they become uniform, or slowly increasing, with further distance from the center. All galaxies seem to follow a new rule, as empirically described by the MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) theory which adds a small cosmological acceleration, a0 ≈ 1.2×10-10 m/s2. The physical source of this acceleration is not provided by the MOND theory.

In current science the need to explain uniform stellar orbital speed using Kepler/Newton rules is one of the reasons for introducing the “dark matter” hypothesis. Galaxies are assumed to be filled and surrounded by an unknown form of “something”, transparent to light, with 20 times the gravitational mass of all the visible stars, in a roughly spherical halo. This halo, about 10 times bigger than the galactic disk, is assumed to decrease in density from the galactic center outward.

In the Neu Theory model uniform orbital speed is explained by introducing the concept of a homogenous “hyper” spinfield projected from all supercell cores, stellar or galactic.

The total galaxy spinfield is hypothesized to have three parts that add together:

1. A hyper spinfield projection from galaxy core matter g-rising at c.
2. A spinfield projection from remaining galaxy matter g-rising at speeds less than c.
3. A spinfield floor by the cosmos as a whole.

In the Neu Theory model, at some finite distance from the galaxy center, the acceleration of the local spinfield will reduce to the uniform hyper-spinfield projection speed. This speed is maintained by the dynamics of the g-rising body plus the cosmic g-spin floor and will not get any smaller. The g-spin floor is the movement/synergy projection of the cosmic whole number N as one body.

##### The Cosmological G-Spin Background

In the Neu Theory model, all spinfields, starting with the primary matter collections, add to an existing cosmological homogenous accelerating “spinfield floor”. This bending-in-place acceleration is the homogenous isotropic g-spin of the cosmic number as one body. No spinfield can “fall” below this. Above this acceleration, Einstein/Newton/Kepler dynamics takes over. With g-rise acceleration at light speed the hyper spinfield adds its floor.

In the Neu Theory model, the g-spin floor of the cosmic matter whole, is a natural cosmological acceleration, as are the g-rise floor of the cosmic matter whole, and the g-rise acceleration of space.

##### Einstein/Newton/Kepler Spinfields

Spinfields are observed to begin with Newtonian/Kepler dynamics. This means the escape velocity is equal to the square root of 2Gm/r, where G is the gravitational constant, m is the mass in kilograms, and r is the radius in meters. The orbital velocity is equal to the square root of Gm/r. The orbital velocity is a fixed relationship to the escape velocity at that place and is equal to the escape velocity divided by the square root of 2. Orbital velocity is approximately 71 % of the escape velocity.

As the g-rise/spinfield number get larger, from planetary numbers into stellar numbers, the Kepler/Newton spinfield orbital dynamics changes into Einstein spinfield orbital dynamics as one gets closer to a massive g-rising source. The precession of the planet Mercury orbit around the Sun is explained by Einstein’s theory. With both planetary and stellar numbers, the escape and orbital velocities of the spinfield remain well below light speed.

##### Super Cell Spinfields

In the Neu Theory model, when the g-rise/spinfield number reaches a critical minimum value, ∼3 stellar masses (4.0 x 1057neu), nuclide structural collapse occurs, creating a neucleon supercluster at nuclear densities, that is much smaller than the Schwarzschild radius.

The surface of the supercluster reaches and maintains a physical g-rise at light speed perpendicular to the g-rise pressure from space.

In Neu Theory there is no space below the supercluster g-rise surface. The spinfield begins at a g-rise surface that is physically accelerating at light speed!

It is hypothesized that at 1.5 times Schwarzschild radius (the photon sphere), the once degenerate electrons, equal in number to the collapsing deuterons, form a coherent negative supercloud layer, in a lattice shell structure vibrating near light speed. The electron supercloud is assumed not to spin as a body around the central core, but it is not forbidden.

One can only speculate why the negatively charged electrons, which are strongly attracted to the positive supercharge shield, don’t fall into the supercluster, while the positively charged nuclides do. Possible reasons are:

• For topological reasons deuterons in the supernuclide cannot capture electrons and become neutrons.
• The electron supercloud surrounding the supernuclide behaves like electrons surrounding an atomic nuclide, except there is only one degenerate shell. Because of the strong attraction, the negative electron supercloud shell tries to get as close to the positive supercluster as it can. When the electric potential has been reduced to one half, similar to an atom, a “ground state” is reached, and the supercloud cannot get any closer. Neu Theory hypothesizes the ground state distance is at the photon sphere at 1.5 Schwarzschild radius.

The outer surface of the electron supercloud is neutral. There are as many electrons in the supercloud as there are deuterons in the supercluster.

The volume of space between the supercluster surface and the supercloud at 1.5 time the Schwarzschild radius is called the electric superhollow. The electric superhollow is filled with the residual electric field of the deuteron/electron charge couple number.

It is hypothesized, the superhollow volume from the supercore until the Schwarzschild radius is filled with a hyper spinfield with escape and orbital velocities at light speed. The spinfield velocities between the Schwarzschild radius and the electron supercloud start to drop below light speed. Beyond the supercloud shell the Einstein/Newton/Kepler spinfield velocity behavior occurs. See Figure 3.11.

It is hypothesized that the hyper spinfield within the superhollow projects a homogenous spinfield acceleration from the Schwarzschild radius all the way beyond the outer regions of stars in a galaxy, and this is the reason the speed of stars is the same throughout the galaxy. The speed of the stars is proportional to the mass of the supernuclide. The spinfields of the remaining matter in the galaxy add their local effects on top of the hyper spinfield floor.

The entire object – the electric supercluster, the electric supercloud, and the electric superhollow become one electric supercell. All electric supercells are essentially alike. They all have the same topological form. The main differences are core number, deuteron/neutron ratio, and net spin/magnetism. The Neu Theory supercell is what is currently called a “black hole.” Similar to the atomic nuclei, it is hypothesized that the supercell neucleonic core as a body does not spin.

Supercells have well developed appetites. They will swallow all matter objects, and make them part of a larger supercell number with the same form.

Two supercell cores merge into one larger supercell core. They essentially eat each other. The two electron superclouds merge into one electron supercloud, and the two objects fuse into one larger electric supercell. The 1.5 times Schwarzschild radius of the supercell whole adjusts accordingly.

The merging of two supercells with their individual hyper-spinfield velocity projections into one larger hyper-spinfield velocity projection is one of nature’s extreme topological events. The merging will send a hyper spin-field shock wave (a dramatic change in a local movement/synergy field) that will travel in a spherical shell at the accelerating speed of space throughout the cosmos. It should be emphasized that in this model space itself is not changed in the slightest by this spherical traveling pulse of movement/synergy. Perhaps the first signal of a "gravitational wave" GW150914 observed by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington on February 11, 2016, is an example of such a hyper-spinfield pulse passing through our neighborhood.

Supercells are an integral part of the cosmic matter cycle, as they are the processing centers where neutrons are received, sorted, and then ejected back into space to maintain the cycle. The centers of all galaxies are supercells. It has been observed that the mass of a supercell is approximately 0.5% of the mass of its galaxy. The heart of all galaxies is a giant battery!

It is hypothesized that the hyper spinfield dynamics of the supercell is projected as an additional form of synergy in a uniform halo throughout the galaxy, adding to the Einstein/Newtonian/Kepler/Cosmic spinfield . The effects of the hyper spinfield synergy projection become more pronounced as the mass number and size of supercells increase.

#### The Milky Way Super Cell

Consider the Milky Way Galaxy Center (Sagittarius A*), which is estimated to have a 4.1 million solar mass core (8.16 x 1036 kg). This mass is equal to a neumass number of 4.87 x 1063. Figure 3.11 – The Milky Way Electric Supercell[/caption]

Most of the neucleons in the milky way supercluster are hypothesized to be deuteron cells. A smaller number are neutron cells. The actual deuteron/neutron ratio of the milky way supercluster is to be determined.

One half of the neumass number sets a lower limit on the neucleon number, by making all the neucleons deuterons. Using the neu number/neucleon ratio of Iron-56 (56/30), it is estimated that there are ∼2.6 x 1063 cells in the milky way core, with 87% deuterons and 13% neutrons.

Using a theoretical specific supercluster core packing density of 4.95 x 1017 kg/m3 (73.98 % of absolute density, similar to the 126 neucleons of Lead-208), the Milky Way core with 2.6 x 1063 neucleons, has a calculated minimum volume of 1.65 x 1019 m3, equal to a radius of 1,578 kilometers, smaller than the 1,737 kilometer radius of the Moon.

All ∼ 2.27 x 1063 deuteron positive charge shells have migrated above the neutral core surface into one positive electric super shield with a finite thickness ∼ 75 kilometers.

Similar to atomic nuclides the supercore has a net spin/magnetic axis. The Schwarzschild radius of 4.1 million solar masses is 12 million kilometers. It is hypothesized that at a distance of 18 million kilometers, 1.5 times Schwarzschild radius (the “photon sphere”), approximately 1/8 the distance from the earth to the sun, there is a supercloud layer of ∼ 2.27 x 1063 negatively charged electrons surrounding the positively shielded milky way neucleon supercluster.

Similar to an atom with its electrons, the supercell is essentially a neutral body with only a small residual charge, depending on the exact numbers of deuterons and electrons.

Using Newtonian dynamics the milky way supercell core has a calculated g-rise of approximately 2.2 x 1014 m/s2. In one second the calculated rise of the core is 1.1 x 1014 meters, which is 367 thousand times more than the distance light would travel in one second!?

This may seem impossible, until you realize that g-rise is acceleration, not motion. To measure acceleration one starts from zero (0). Another way to consider it is that, starting from zero, the physical g-rise of the core surface will reach the speed of light, in some small fraction of one second as a natural limit, but will never exceed it. As galaxy cores get more massive, the time to reach light speed will just get shorter and shorter, but never be zero.

For the milky way supercell core the time from zero to light speed is ∼1.3 millionth of one second.

In the Neu Theory model, the milky way supercell core, similar to all galaxy cores, maintains a g-rise at the current (universal now) speed of light.

##### The Electric Super Cell Hollow

One can speculate on the properties of the spinfield projected from a Milky Way neucleon supercluster core g-rising at light speed. The g-rising surface has a radius of 1578 km. First the projected spinfield passes through the 75 km thick positive electric supercharge layer, continues through the 36 million km diameter superhollow, through the electron supercloud layer into the galaxy.

It is hypothesized that there are two components to a galaxy’s spinfield. The first component comes from matter g-rising at a speed less than c. The second component comes from matter g-rising at c.

Within the 36 million km diameter electric superhollow volume it is hypothesized:

• The spinfield escape and orbital velocities are maintained at light speed, starting from the g-rising at light speed supercore surface, until the Schwarzschild radius at 12 million km (0.08 AU), after which they start to drop below light speed. It is this 24 million km in diameter volume, where the hyper-spinfield projection comes from. The hyper-spinfield projection provides a uniform velocity floor for the entire galaxy spinfield hollow. For the Milky Way this is 220 km/s.
• The negative electron supercloud layer is hypothesized to start at 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius at 18 million km (0.16 AU), one light minute away, creating a shell of vibrating electrons. Similar to an atomic electron field, the electron supercloud shell has a negative electric inner hollow surface, and a neutral outer ball surface.
• The spherical volume of space between the positive electric super shield of the supercore and the negative electric inner surface of the electron supercloud is filled with the residual electric field of ∼ 2.43 x 1063 electric charge couples. It is hypothesized, the residual electric field contains one half of the electric potential energy of the supercell. The supercell can be considered as a giant battery, the positive core being the anode and the negative electron layer being the cathode.
• 18 million kilometers from the center at the outer neutral supercloud surface, the g-rise drops to 1.68 x 106 m/s2 (0.0056 c), and the spinfield effects begin to decrease with distance, following Einstein/Newton/Kepler rules.
##### The Milky Way Spinfield Hollow

The closest orbiting star (S2) is observed at 18 billion km, 17 light hours away from the milky way center with a period of 15.2 years.

At ∼20-30 thousand light years from the center the inverse square law spinfield diminishes its effect, and the hyper spinfield floor remains, with uniform or slightly increasing stellar velocities. The farthest stars are observed at ∼100 thousand light years away.

Our sun is ~ 27.2 thousand light years from the center with a rotation speed of 220 kilometers per second, and a orbital period of 240 million years. All stars in the Milky Way have this minimum speed.

### 3. The G-Fall of Charge

G-fall is a property of the charge shells, fundamental physical forms [6+][6-]. The g-fall of a charge shell – the fixed volume of isotropic topologically split spin energy surrounding a matter object – is a compressive force acting in direct opposition to the force of the g-rise of the matter surface it surrounds.

G-fall results in a “squeezing” or “compressing” action by the charge shell, a full body "jacket", that is dynamically balanced by the g-rise of the matter object it surrounds. Both zome and charge act in the same direction.

The pressure from g-rise of the proton and electron balls creates a tension reaction within the fixed charge shell volume as it elastically stretches to maintain equilibrium. There is a maximum limit to the tension stretch of a charge shell band that is proportional to its minimum “thickness”, the thinner the shell the greater the tension. The tension in the charge shell is a reaction force that is equal to the value of the g-rise floor it surrounds. Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table – Column AD provides average nuclide charge shell values.

The least tension is within the electron ball’s charge shell with its constant thickness of 1.435 x 10-17 m. The electron ball’s g-rise is 0.13 x 10-7 m/s2.

The maximum stable g-rise and minimum charge shell thickness is Bismuth-209, with a g-rise of 7.58 x 10-7 m/s2, and an average layer thickness of 0.267 x 10-20 m for each of its 83 charge shells. A natural limit seems to haven reached. The Bi209 charge shell is ~5375 times thinner than the electron’s charge shell.

As is described in The Neucleon Clusters Hypothesis, it is the composite tensile reaction from multiple captive proton charge shell layers, that have migrated above the neucleonic membrane, that holds the multiple neucleons of a nuclide together.

Each electric shell is a complete fermionic volume in a coherent concentric layer adding its g-fall compression with other layers creating a composite positive charge shield volume that surrounds a completely neutral g-rising nucleus.

As there is no electric charge below the neucleonic membrane, there is no need for the hypothetical “strong” nuclear force of current science (more than one hundred times stronger then the electric force) to hold the protons together. The captive protons within the deuteron cluster, have stopped “repelling” each other with their electromotive force, and instead, all their individual charge shell layers have migrated above the neucleonic membrane, and are now “banded” together as part of one electric “charge shield” protecting a stable nuclide. Nature is amazing.

##### The Electric Fields

The electric fields are fundamental physical forms [7+][7-] that is a permanent property of the electric charge shells [6+][6-].

The electric fields are a form of open shell synergy projection, arising from the topological shearing and shrinkage of 0.000833u of neutron plasm matter spin energy after little bang de-linkage, into two equal spin energy “electric charge” shells, that surround the proton and the electron after neutron transformation.

The charge shells are mirror opposites, with equal portions of accelerating isotropic spin energy. Each charge is one-half of a whole quanta. By convention, the proton’s charge shell and field is called “positive” (+), and the electron’s charge shell and field is called “negative” (-).

The positive and negative electric fields, create an electromotive force between the charge shells and their contents. This force is attractive between the unlike charge shells, e.g., proton-electron interactions, and repulsive, between the like charge shells, i.e., proton-proton interactions, and electron-electron interactions. In the Neu Theory model the electromotive force is the strongest force in nature.

Similar to the magnetomotive force the electromotive force is action at a distance through the synergy projection of equal and opposite fields that creates a potential for motion between charged bodies. The electric field is a form of potential energy. The field acts by transferring kinetic energy to other charged bodies with the inertia of contained mass playing its part. The electromotive potential is correspondingly reduced and photons of light are produced with an energy equal in value to the reduction in electric potential.

In nature the motion between electrically charged bodies results in a state of dynamic equilibrium as neutral atoms with the emission of photons of light. The first example is hydrogen.

Unlike magnetism there is no “torque” component to the electromotive force. The force is a pure linear attraction or repulsion between charged bodies, it does not change the direction of the axis of rotation of the body the force acts upon. For example, the spin/magnetic axis of atomic electrons remains aligned with the nuclear spin/magnetic axis as the electrons orbital the nucleus.

##### Magnetic & Electric Fields

The magnetic and electric synergy force fields emerge from two different natural accelerations and have individual effects. In Neu Theory the three primary spin/magnetic fields and the two dipole charge shells/electric fields are very different forms of nature, and cannot be considered parts of a single “electromagnetic” force.

Both the proton and the electron carry charge shells, and are also spin/magnetic, so both the magnetic and electric fields perpetually travel together with the same object.

It is hypothesized the well known physical effects, the fields have on other fields, are from the permanent individual nature of the forces as they add together.

### 4. The G-Rise of Space

The g-rise of space  is the perpetual expansion & diffusion-in-place of free rise energy at a maintained density. This creates a isotropic contact force opposite in direction to the g-rise force of the primary matter objects, and similar in direction to the g-fall force of the charge shells that surround the matter objects. Both zome and charge act in the same direction.

It should be noted that zome never directly touches neutral neucleonic or neutral electron matter, the electric charge shield is always in the way. When zome directly touches matter, as in the case of a free neutron or proton core fragments, there is no stable solution.

The accelerating g-rise of space is also a contact force from within on photons of radiant energy. The g-rise of space on photons of light results in two effects:

1. Continuous internal pressure on the 2nd law photon bubble from the homogenous isotropic expansion/diffusion of 1st law zome energy. This is cause of the Hubble redshift.
2. An additional slow increase in the internal pressure from the uniform universal acceleration a of zome energy with the non-accelerating photon’s time of travel (aging). The increasing force results in an accelerating redshift that is specific for each photon’s lifetime. This is the redshift attributed to “dark energy.”
##### The Inertia Field

The natural g-rise acceleration of Zome, or universal space as a whole, is in itself a movement/synergy force field. Neu Theory calls this the Inertia Field. The inertia field is an internal projection by Zome rise movement/energy on the matter with charge shells contained within its body volume. This is unlike the other force fields and effects of nature, which are projections external to their bodies,

The effect of the inertia field is to create a universal state of rest or uniform motion for the matter objects embedded within, and maintain physical distance between matter bodies. The acceleration of space creates a pressure exactly opposite to the g-rise acceleration of quantum matter. This is the source of Newton’s 1st Law of Motion.

It should be noted that in Neu Theory, motion is a 2nd law energy, hence it does not intrinsically accelerate with time. The theory hypothesizes, that neutral matter objects (i.e., atoms) are decelerated by the 1st law energy of zome, while charged ions are accelerated.

Space is always moving at the accelerating speed of light perpendicular to matter and charge, however fast matter is moving relative to matter. The reason the speed of matter can never reach the speed of space, is because the speed of space is the acceleration of c, while the speed of matter is a motion always less or equal to c. Space is naturally getting faster while matter cannot get faster without the input of an external force. The fastest matter gets in nature are the ultra-high energy cosmic rays that fill space.