About This Work
Neu Theory is a world model without singularities, a big bang, space-time, neutrinos, antimatter, dark matter, dark energy, quarks, and a strong nuclear force. We shall see how our amazing universe can work just fine without them.
The Homeostatic Universe
The homeostatic universe is imagined as a primal cosmic being, called N, that exists in a steady state within a stable volume. Perpetual existence is powered by an internal natural acceleration, a small uniform increase to the absolute speed of light "c" called "a". The primal acceleration a is a perpetual force of nature, which generates four physical accelerations, two with matter forms, and two with energy forms. These accelerations become the four forces of nature (the g-forces), that drive the cosmos.
In this model, the universe is not getting bigger, there is no outward expansion into some nameless void. The volume of space, nature’s largest physical object, fluctuates within narrow self regulating limits. The relative distance between galaxies is not increasing. The average density of matter is not decreasing. There is no "Hubble Flow" of space. There s no "dark energy" that accelerates this flow. The physical meaning of cosmological "redshift" in Neu Theory is entirely different than what is currently accepted.
Cosmic homeostasis is maintained by an one-way atomic matter energy cycle, using a web of an estimated 500 billion galaxies, each with super-massive "black holes" at their centers, operating as giant regional recycling factories.
Neu Theory is a visual model, not a mathematical theory
Neu Theory is not a mathematical theory, it is a physical theory. The theory doesn’t try to prove or disprove anything. Only two numbers are required by the model. Each has measurable physical properties. The first, is the number one called quantum n. The second, is an invariant collection of quantum n’s called cosmic N, or N prime.
We can only estimate what the cosmic number N is, but it is fixed and will never change. It is hypothesized that starting at the primal level there is only addition in nature. All fractions of n must add up to one, and all ones must add up to N. This is nature’s Certainty Principle.
We shall see how a large number of three dynamic primal forms of matter, with simple shapes and invariant properties, following simple rules, given enough time, can create natural environments, that allow for the emergence of complex physical bodies, including you, me, and all the inventive technology that surrounds us.
The Atomic Nucleus
Neu Theory provides a simple graphic model of nature’s fundamental physical forms. It is a visual description of what nature makes first, from which everything else, is then made.
Consider the atomic nucleus. Visualize a spherical cluster of neutral matter cells, similar to eggs or peanuts, tightly packed together with a polyhedral architecture, analogous to a honeycomb, except with more facets. Think of it as a cluster of compressible peanuts with incompressible spinning kernals. Pick any cluster number between 2 and 146 cells, except for clusters with 19, 35, 39, 61, 89, 115, and 139 cells, which for some reason are not found in Nature.
Each cell in the cluster has its own incompressible, yet malleable shell of non-spinning "liquid" neutral matter, that contains one or two incompressible balls of spinning "liquid" neutral matter, each with its own magnetic field. The spinning cores are immersed within a compressible shell of a dense "gas" like body of non-spinning neutral matter called the plasm. The whole cluster body, from 2 to 146 cells, is made from only three forms of entirely neutral matter objects.
Look at diagram labeled Two Neucleons. The neutron (a) is analogous to a one kernel peanut with a deformable shell. The neutron is electrically neutral and has no charge shell of its own. The deuteron (ab) is analogous to a two kernel peanut with a deformable shell. The deuteron is a neutron with the borrowed positive electric charge shell of a captive proton (b+). Both neucleons are shown spin-up. The neutron spin value is always +1, and the deuteron spin value is always +2.
Deuteron cells (ab) with added neutron cells (a) below a common electric charge shield are the building blocks of nuclear architecture.
All the perpetually spinning cores in a nuclide, like miniature gyroscopes, are aligned (spin-up or spin-down) with a common cluster axis. The shells, plasms and the cluster itself do not spin or rotate. The neutral matter cells (called neucleons in this model) are tightly held together by a compression force that comes from the stretching of thin spherical shells of tensile electric energy that "jacket" the entire cluster.
Look at the diagram labeled Section @ Nuclide Surface. This is a schematic drawing of a cross section at the neucleonic membrane surface of any neucleon cell. This shows the relationship between the three matter particles, shown in black and grey; the electric charge shield, shown in red, and physical space shown in light blue. All five entities are topologically discrete with a definable boundary between each other. The colors never mix. It should be noted that there is no space below the electric charge shield.
Look at the direction of the arrows in the diagram, which indicate the direction of force exerted by the body. The direction of force of the three neutral matter particles that form the nuclide cluster (core, membrane and plasm), is always outward from a common cluster center, with an acceleration called g-rise. The tension within the electric charge shells creates a reaction force, called g-fall, that is always inward, directly opposite to the g-rise of matter. The direction of the small pressure from accelerating space, also called g-rise, is always opposite to the g-rise of matter, and always in-line with the g-fall of charge.
Look at the diagram labeled Seven & Eight Cell Clusters, which are computer generated images, drawn to scale, that show the two stable Nitrogen Isotopes. The 7 cell cluster Nitrogen-14 has 7 deuteron cells (7ab). The 8 cell cluster Nitrogen-15 has 7 deuteron cells plus 1 neutron cell (7ab+a).
The double membrane walls between the cluster cells, that give the cluster its polyhedral architecture, are not shown in these Nitrogen diagrams.
*With Nitrogen-14 the thickness of all seven deuteron membrane walls is 5.95×10-20m. With Nitrogen-15 the thickness of all seven deuteron membrane walls is 6.13×10-20m, while the thickness of the one neutron membrane wall is 7.47×10-20m. These thicknesses are approximately twenty seven thousand times less than the diameter of a spinning core, at ~1.67×10-15m.
The membranes of the seven deuteron cells in the cluster, each containing two cores that spin in the same direction, completely touch each other giving the double walls a polyhedral architecture with flat faces that make "sharp" bends and corners. At the spheroidal neucleonic surface, the cell membrane walls abut together with curved polyhedral seams.
The discrete positive 7+ electric charge shield is shown as a red band that surrounds the neutral matter clusters. The thickness of the charge shield can only be symbolic at this scale. *The calculated thickness of the Nitrogen-14 charge shield (7+) is 8.71×10-20m, and the calculated thickness of the slightly larger Nitrogen-15 charge shield (also 7+) is a slightly smaller 8.40×10-20m. The charge shield thickness is in the same range as the thickness of the membrane walls.
The seven deuteron cell Nitrogen-14 (7ab) has six deuteron cells in a ring shape with +2 spins that balance, with the seventh deuteron cell spin-up in the middle, giving the cluster a +2 net spin. There is a net magnetic moment of +0.21u. *The charge radius of the Nitrogen-14 cluster is 5.1038×10-15m. A positive quadrupole value indicates a slightly prolate spheroid (cigar shape). The minimum packing geometry for fourteen balls indicates that based on the measured charge radius, 12 "hills" protrude above the spheroidal surface. The electric charge shield just flows over the hills maintaining a uniform thickness.
The eight cell Nitrogen-15 (7ab+a) is a Nitrogen-14 nuclide with the addition of one neutron cell in the middle with the deuteron. The -1 net spin implies that four +2 deuteron cells are spin-down, and three +2 deuteron cells and the +1 neutron cell are spin-up. *The charge radius of the Nitrogen-15 cluster is 5.2188×10-15m. Nitrogen-15 has no quadrupole value which indicates a spherical shape. The minimum packing geometry for fifteen balls indicates that based on the measured charge radius, 12 hills protrude above the spherical surface. The deuteron and neutron in the center of the nuclide don’t protrude above the neutral membrane surface. As with all nuclides the electric charge shield just flows over the hills maintaining its uniform thickness.
There are no repulsive positive electric charges anywhere inside the clusters! All seven positive electric charge shells have detached from the surface of their deuteron hosts, and migrated above the completely neutral matter cluster, and are now firmly stuck on the outside surface in seven concentric tensile layers. Instead of repelling each other the positive electric charge shells now add together, as a protective electric shield (the Coulomb Barrier), that envelopes the nuclide with a compressive force directed inward into the cluster.
The inward acceleration (compression force) from the tensile stretching of the positive electric energy charge shells, called g-fall, adjusts until it exactly balances the outward acceleration force of the neutral matter cluster, called g-rise, giving the nucleus its physical shape and size. *The g-rise of Nitrogen-14 is 2.37×10-7m/s2. The g-rise of the heavier Nitrogen-15 is 2.45×10-7m/s2.
A "strong" attractive force to hold the nucleus together is not required .
The atomic number (Z) of a stable nuclide is equal to the number of deuteron cells (ab) in the nuclide, each with a +2 spin and a 1+ charge shell. There are no free protons with a positive electric charge within the nucleus.
The mass number (A) of a nuclide is equal to the number of spinning cores within the nucleus, which can only spin-up or spin-down.
This is how to understand the atomic nucleus.
* All values shown are from the Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table.
Use of Terms
Many common physical terms have a very different physical interpretation or meaning in the model, e.g., matter, electricity, space and light. There are several newly coined words, e.g., neu, neucleon, spinrise, spinergy, zomon. The Glossary provides interactive definitions of Neu Theory terms and other selected terms as used in the work.
Questions about nature have been asked by human beings since the beginning of mental coherence. The answers that are currently provided, even if they mathematically work to a remarkable precision, are not always consistent or complete. Neu Theory uses the same stubborn irrefutable physical facts as everyone else, however, based on the same empirical data, provides a very different interpretation of all fundamental phenomena in one simple unified model.
Neu Theory is a creation of the writer’s imagination. You will not find anything like this anywhere else. This work is a contribution to human thought. The writer does not intend to defend or promote Neu Theory. The model is being presented as is. If there is truth here, it will eventually become apparent to others. If not, so be it. Right or wrong, when a different path is traveled, much can still be learned from the journey.
Curious readers with questions about the smallest and largest things in nature are encouraged to begin with a completely open mind (a tabula rasa) and decide for themselves. While these concepts can be easily understood, they are so different from current scientific thought, it will initially require some effort and a paradigm shift. Please look at the diagram Direction of Force – The Cantilevered Pendulums Experiment. A or B? One way or another, the diagram speaks for itself.
The Neu Theory Model
The Neu Theory model is presented in Two Parts.
Part One consists of five conceptual tools underpinning the model.
Part Two consists of five hypotheses that describe the foundations of physical reality, using the ordinary, yet remarkable neutron, as the central player in a perpetual one way cycle of cosmic renewal.
In fact, it would not be wrong to say, that the entire universe is built from neutrons that exist in one of two natural states, the neutral a-state as the neutron whole, and the electric b-state as the hydrogen parts.
A good way to begin this journey is with Simple Object Topology, an intuitive method to understand the concept of shape.
Neu Theory asks basic questions about fundamental phenomena:
- What is it?
- Where does it come from?
- How does it work?
Neu Theory answers questions
about the physics of nature
in one unified model:
- What is energy?
- What is matter?
- What is time?
- What is force?
- What is magnetism?
- What is gravity?
- What is electricity?
- What is space?
- What is motion?
- What is light?