About This Work
Neu Theory is a world model without singularities, a big bang, space-time, neutrinos, antimatter, dark matter, dark energy, quarks, and a strong nuclear force. None are needed or provided. We shall present a model that shows how our amazing universe can work just fine without them.
The model is grounded in well documented "facts of experience," that are readily available from multiple sources, for example, physics and chemistry handbooks and science websites. None of the starting empirical data used in this work has been created by the writer. There is no need, as the facts themselves are indisputable. It is the interpretation of these facts that is always the issue.
Questions about nature have been asked by human beings since the beginning of mental coherence. The answers that are currently provided by science, even if they mathematically work to a remarkable precision, are not always consistent or complete. Neu Theory uses the same stubborn irrefutable physical facts as everyone else, however, based on the same empirical data, provides a very different interpretation of all fundamental physical phenomena in one simple interconnected model.
Neu Theory is a creation of this writer’s imagination. You will not find anything like this anywhere else. The ideas were born thinking about the enigma of gravity, and trying to solve the long standing (1911) mystery of the "missing mass" in beta decay that did not require using the "ghost" neutrino particle. The term "beta decay", called the "little bang" in this model, is the spontaneous transformation of the neutron into the proton and electron with a constant reduction of mass. This invariant relationship between the three masses is the empirical foundation and cornerstone of Neu Theory.
This work is a contribution to human thought. The writer does not intend to defend or promote Neu Theory. The model is being presented as is. If there is truth here, it will eventually become apparent to others. If not, so be it. Right or wrong, when a different path is traveled, much can still be learned from the journey.
Curious readers with questions about the smallest and largest things in nature are encouraged to begin with a completely open mind (a tabula rasa) and decide for themselves. While these concepts can be easily understood, they are so different from current scientific thought, it will initially require some effort and a paradigm shift. There is much to relearn. For example, please look at the diagram "Direction of Force – The Cantilevered Pendulums Experiment."
What will happen, A or B? One way or another, this thought experiment speaks for itself.
Neu Theory is a visual model, not a mathematical theory
Neu Theory is not a mathematical model, it is a physical model. There are no equations trying to prove or disprove anything. The model is just a simple way of looking at everything physical that seems to work.
Only two numbers are required by the model. Each has measurable physical properties. The first, is the number one, identified as the ordinary neutron and called quantum n. The second, is an invariant collection of quantum n’s called N Prime.
We can only estimate what the cosmic population of neutrons is, but it is fixed and will never change. It is hypothesized that starting at the primal level there is only addition in nature. All fractions of n must add up to one, and all ones must add up to N. The conservation of number, is nature’s Certainty Principle.
We shall see how a large number of three dynamic primal forms of matter, with simple shapes and invariant properties, following simple rules, given enough time, can create natural environments, that allow for the emergence of complex physical bodies, including you, me, and all the inventive technology that surrounds us.
The Homeostatic Universe
In this model, the universe is not getting bigger, there is no outward expansion into some nameless void. The volume of space, nature’s largest physical object, fluctuates within narrow self regulating limits. The relative distance between far away galaxies is not increasing. The average density of matter is not decreasing. There is no "Hubble Flow" of space. There s no "dark energy" that accelerates this flow.
The physical meaning of space, light and redshift in Neu Theory is entirely different than what is currently accepted.
In this model, cosmic homeostasis is maintained by an one-way atomic matter energy cycle, using a web of an estimated 500 billion galaxies, each with super-massive electric supercells (black holes) at their centers, operating as giant regional recycling factories.
Please look at the diagrams, "The Milky Way Electric Supercell", and "Galaxy Electric Supercell Dynamics (Black Hole)".
Most of the neucleons in the milky way supercluster are hypothesized to be deuteron cells. A smaller number are neutron cells. The actual deuteron/neutron ratio of the milky way supercluster is to be determined.
Using a theoretical specific core neucleon packing density at 73.98 % of absolute density, similar to the 126 neucleons (82ab+44a) of Lead-208, the Milky Way core has a calculated volume of 1.65 x 1019 m3, equal to a 3,156 kilometer diameter sphere.
Imagine this as you look at the night sky. The Milky Way supercell core, the heart of our galaxy, with a mass of 4.1 million suns, is about 9% smaller in diameter than the Moon.
All ∼ 2.27 x 1063 deuteron positive electric charge shells have migrated above the neutral core surface into one positive (the anode) electric super shield of free spin energy with a finite thickness around 75 kilometers. Similar to atomic nuclides the supercell core has a net spin/magnetic axis.
The Schwarzschild radius of 4.1 million solar masses is 12 million kilometers. It is hypothesized that at a distance of 18 million kilometers, 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius (called the “photon sphere”), approximately 1/8 the distance from the earth to the sun, there is a supercloud layer of ∼ 2.27 x 1063 negatively charged electrons (the cathode), vibrating near the speed of light, surrounding the electric supercell.
Using Newtonian dynamics the milky way supercell core has a calculated g-rise of approximately 2.2 x 1014 m/s2. In one second the calculated rise of the core is 1.1 x 1014 meters, which is 367 thousand times more than the distance light would travel in one second!?
This may seem impossible, until you realize that g-rise is acceleration, not motion. To measure acceleration one starts from zero (0). Another way to consider it is that, starting from zero, the physical g-rise of the core surface will reach the speed of light, in some small fraction of one second as a natural limit, but will never exceed it. As galaxy cores get more massive, the time to reach light speed will just get shorter and shorter, but never be zero.
For the milky way supercell core the time from zero to light speed is ∼1.3 millionth of one second.
Supercell core g-rise at light speed creates a hyper-field, a gravitational acceleration in addition to the normal Newton/Einstein field. It is hypothesized that this additional acceleration is projected from the supercell volume below the Schwarzschild radius. For the Milky Way this volume is 24 million kilometers in diameter.
The hyper-field is the cause of the uniform orbital speed of stars in a Galaxy, eliminating the need for dark matter. For the Milky Way galaxy the hyper-field generates a 220 kilometers per second orbital speed for its stars.
It is observed that the mass of the electric supercell in galaxies is around 0.5% of the total galaxy mass. The uniform orbital speed of stars in the galaxy is proportional to the supercell mass. The larger the galaxy, the larger is the supercell mass, with a larger Schwarzschild radius. The uniform orbital speed of the galaxy stars proportionally keeps getting faster.
It is hypothesized that the network of billions of galaxy hyper-fields merge into one cosmic movement/synergy hyper-field that is perpetually maintained throughout the universe.
When two supercells merge, whether they are small stellar, or super massive galaxy supercells, they essentially eat each other. This is just a form of nuclear fusion, albeit on a cosmic scale. The two negative electron super clouds merge into one electron super cloud. Not one electron goes missing. The two positive electric super shields around the g-rising cores become one positive electric super shield, not one positive charge is lost. The two neucleon super clusters become one larger neucleon super cluster. Not one neu number is lost in the addition.
The merging of two hyper-fields into one larger hyper-field is a catastrophic event in the universe that sends a massive shock, or series of shocks that will travel at the accelerating speed of light, expanding as a spherical disturbance in the field as the hyper-field adjusts to its new condition. Eventually the hyper shocks will disappear into the cosmic hyper-field floor. These hyper shocks are perhaps what is being observed with the LIGO "gravitational wave" experiments.
The main cosmic purpose of the galaxy electric supercells is to receive a stream of neucleon clusters, separate the neutrons from deuterons, and then, during an active galactic nuclei phase (AGN), emit copious amounts of fresh neutrons into space. These are the polar jets that we see in astronomical images. The emitted neutrons will spontaneously little bang with a half life of ten minutes, making hydrogen and fresh bursts of space. The AGN cycle keeps adding fresh quanta of free rise energy to the existing universal volume of space free rise energy that is perpetually expanding and diffusing-in-place at the accelerating speed of light.
By some observations, an estimated one out of thirteen galaxies in the universe is currently in the AGN phase. The model calculates, that with an estimated cosmic neu value of N Prime set equal to 3.0 x 1079, and a 7% rate of AGN emission, a stable cosmic volume of around 68 billion light years in diameter can be maintained. If the observed values change the model will adjust. Look at the diagram "The Cosmic Whole".
The Atoms of Nature
Neu Theory provides a simple graphic model of nature’s fundamental physical forms. It is a visual description of what nature makes first, from which everything else, is then made.
Consider the atomic nucleus. Visualize a spherical cluster of neutral matter cells, called neucleons in this model, similar to eggs or peanuts, tightly packed together with a polyhedral architecture, analogous to a honeycomb, except with more facets. Think of it as a cluster of malleable peanut shells with incompressible spinning kernels. Pick any cluster number between 2 and 146 cells, except for clusters with 19, 35, 39, 61, 89, 115, and 139 cells, all odd numbers, which for some reason are not found in Nature. These clusters of cells are the atomic elements of the periodic table along with their isotopes.
Each cell in the cluster has its own, non-spinning membrane of a "deformable" neutral Type I matter substance. The membrane can make "sharp" bends and corners. The membrane acts as a bottle that contains, one or two, spinning "solid like" neutral balls of Type I matter. Each spinning ball has its own magnetic field. The spinning cores are immersed within a dense homogenous neutral Type II matter substance that behaves as a compressible "gas". This, as yet unrecognized, elementary matter particle is named the neucleonic plasm by the model. The whole cluster body, from 2 to 146 cells, is made from only three forms of entirely neutral matter particles. There are no other forms of matter in nature. Even the "anti-matter" positron is made from them.
Look at the diagram labeled "The Neutron". The neutron shape is analogous to a deformable one kernel peanut. The neutron is completely electrically neutral and has no dedicated electric charge shell of its own. In nature all matter is neutral. Charge is always discrete from matter.
The neutron core is a spinning matter ball with a fixed mass, fixed volume, fixed surface area and density. The neutron core has a spin/magnetic orientation that is fixed forever, and a magnetic value set equal to one nuclear magneton (-1.0↓).
The core ball is at absolute density (6.693 x 1017 kg/m3) containing ~99.8% of the total neutron mass.
To give some human scale meaning to how truly dense this is – were it
possible to make a one centimeter cube of pure core matter, the size of a small sugar cube – it would have a mass of approximately 6.69 x 1011 kg, which is more than the combined mass of two hundred thousand (200,000) Empire State Buildings!
After the little bang transformation, the neutron matter core will become the proton matter core with the same mass and direction of spin, but the magnetic polarity will flip with a slightly larger magnetic strength (+1.4↑). This polarity flip with the spin remaining constant is crucial, as it allows for spin aligned magnetic opposition between the two spinning cores, necessary in the synthesis of a deuteron.
The neutron membrane is a deformable Type I matter shell at absolute density with ~0.05% of the total neutron mass. The membrane shell can get uniformly thicker and thinner without a change in its specific volume. With the little bang transformation, the membrane will invert and shrink into the spin/magnetic electron ball, maintaining its specific volume and absolute density. The diameter of the spinning electron is calculated to be one twelfth the diameter of the spinning core. The spin/magnetic polarity remains the same as the neutron core, but the electron’s magnetic field strength increases by almost one thousand times (-960.9↓).
The neutron plasm is a compressible neutral Type II matter body with ~0.08% of the total neutron mass that increases and deceases in volume and density, making the overall neutron volume larger and smaller.
After the little bang transformation, the plasm matter is no longer "bottled", and spontaneously de-links into its individual spin and rise energy components creating the four environmental energies. Spin energy will make electricity and light, and rise energy will make space and motion.
The model considers it is a fact of nature, that spin and rise, the two energies that synthesize plasm, can only be de-linked, re-linked in equal amounts, and then contained as part of a neutron with this fixed mass only. Never more, never less. The universal one-way atomic matter/energy cycle ensures that primal plasm matter remains in quantum bottled chunks. See the diagram "The Atomic Matter/Energy Cycle".
It should be noted that all spinning primary particles, always spin in the same direction as the neutron, with a right hand rule. Spin in nature is one way only. This is a primal condition that will never change. See the diagrams "Spin/Magnetic Orientation" and "Primary Spin/Magnetism".
Look at the diagram "The Little Bang – Spontaneous Neutron Transformation Sequence". This sketch depicts the major steps in this miraculous metamorphosis by nature. The release of nature’s "genie in a bottle". This results in the birth of the proton/electron matter couple, along with electricity, space, motion, and light, and is also the primal beginning of sex, all things without which we could not be formed.
Look at diagram labeled "The Three Neucleons". The images are drawn to scale, except the thickness of the charge shield, shown in red, can only be symbolic.
The first neucleon to be formed is the hydrogen-2 nuclide, the deuteron (ab). Deuterons begin to be formed with brown dwarf stars, the smallest being around four thousand times the mass of the Earth.
The deuteron is analogous to a two kernel peanut with a deformable shell. The deuteron is a neutron with one captive proton (b+) below the neutron membrane. Both cores are bottled within a common plasm, both cores are spin-up with their north magnetic poles facing and repelling each other, keeping them physically apart. What is interesting is that the deuteron has two south poles. The proton core’s discrete positive electric charge shell has been detached from its spinning neutral matter surface and transported above the neutron cell’s non-spinning neutral membrane surface becoming the deuteron’s charge shell. Nature does not allow electric charge within a neucleon. The model considers the stable deuteron to be the precursor to further acts of fusion that synthesize the remaining elements and isotopes.
The second neucleon to be formed is the helium-3 nuclide, the helion (abb). The helion is analogous to a three kernel peanut. The helion is a neutron with two captive protons (b+,b+) within its plasm bottle. The two discrete positive charge shells have been detached from the two spinning neutral proton core surfaces and transported above the neutron’s non-spinning neutral membrane surface, forming the helion with two positive charge shell layers making a value of 2+. The helion is stable by itself, but becomes unstable when part of a larger nuclide cluster. The three core helion is smaller than the two core deuteron.
The third neucleon to be formed is a neutron below an electric charge shield, here shown as part of the unstable two cell hydrogen-3 cluster called the triton. The triton is just a deuteron "host" with one neutron "guest" below its single 1+ charge shield. The radioactive triton has a half life of 12.26 years.
Oriented in a spin-up position, the neutron spin value is always +1, the deuteron spin value is always +2, and the helion spin value is always +1. Neucleon spins can only add up or down with these quantum values.
Deuteron cells (ab) with added neutron cells (a) below a common electric charge shield are the building blocks of nuclear architecture.
Look at the diagrams, "Carbon Isotopes", "Nitrogen Isotopes" and "Oxygen Isotopes". The images are drawn to scale. The neucleon cell walls and seams are not shown. The enclosing electric charge shield is not to scale.
All neucleon cores in a nuclide are perpetually spinning, like miniature gyroscope balls that are aligned (spin-up or spin-down) with a common cluster axis. The neucleon membranes and plasms do not spin, and the cluster itself does not rotate. The neucleon cells are tightly held together by a compression force that comes from the stretching of thin tensile spherical shells of electrical spin energy that "straight jacket" the entire cluster. This is positive electric charge, pure free mirror-split quantum spin energy that surrounds the neucleons with an isotropic movement at the accelerating speed of light.
Look at the diagram labeled "Relative Charge Radii". This is a schematic drawing drawn to scale showing the relative size of selected nuclides. The scale of the drawing is 1 centimeter (cm) = 1 femtometer (fm) (10-15m).
In the center of the drawing, the small black dot is the electron (e-). The electron is the smallest stable object in nature, and with a diameter of 0.1376 fm, is noticeable at this scale. The electron has a one negative charge shell with a thickness of 0.01435 fm. All charge shield thickness (red rings) are graphically shown not to scale.
The inner circle, shaded dark grey for schematic clarity, with a red ring is the
proton (p+) (+1 charge shell) with a diameter of 1.68368 fm. The positive
charge shell of the proton is directly touching the spinning core. In
other nuclides, the spinning cores never directly touch a charge shell,
as they are always contained by non-spinning plasm and membrane. With the exception of the S1 surface of the free proton and the S2 surface of the free electron, the electric charge shield is always on the S3 surface(s) of a non-spinning neutral spheroid.
The next circle shaded light grey with a red ring (+2 charge shield) is the two deuteron cell alpha (Helium-4, 2ab). The alpha is the smallest nuclide in nature with a diameter of 3.362 fm. Even the (+1 charge shield) of the free one cell deuteron (H2, ab), with a diameter of 4.2848 fm, is larger than the alpha.
The outermost circle with a red ring (+92 charge shield) is the last natural
isotope, the 146 cell cluster of radioactive *Uranium-238 (92ab+54a), with a diameter of 11.6946 fm. *U238 has 46 deuterons and 27 neutrons that spin up, and 46 deuterons and 27 neutrons that spin down, making a net spin and magnetic field of zero. It is hard to imagine that these 146 cell volumes, shown approximately to scale in the drawing, can fit within the volume defined by a sphere with the 11.6946 fm diameter of *U238, but they do, and with a relatively long half life of 4.4 billion years. The packing density of the *U238 nuclide calculates to 70.51% of absolute density.
Look at the diagram labeled "Positron Emission". This shows one method by which positrons are created. In general, it is hypothesized that positrons are made from the radioactive decay of helion neucleons, which are unstable in nuclides. The helions themselves are created by proton bombardment of nuclides. In this diagram:
- A high energy (6 MeV) spin-down proton strikes a Boron-11 target (+5 charge).
- The proton is captured by a nuclide deuteron making a helion, and the solitary spin-down neutron is ejected. Radioactive *Carbon-11 (+6 charge) has been created.
- Radioactive *C-11 has a half life of about 20 minutes.
- Through an internal nuclear process the captured helion proton becomes a neutron, remaking B-11 (+5 charge), and a spin-down positron with a +1 charge shell is ejected.
Additional details for this exotic event are available in the page "Architecture of The Nuclides".
Look at the diagram labeled "Section @ Nuclide Surface". This is a schematic drawing of a cross section at the neucleonic membrane surface of any neucleon cell. This shows the relationship between the three matter particles (core membrane and plasm), shown in black and grey, the positive electric charge shield, shown in red, and physical space shown in light blue. All five entities are topologically discrete with a definable boundary between each other. The colors never mix. It should be noted that there is no space below the electric charge shield. The net nuclide magnetic field, usually indicated with a light green color, is not shown in this diagram.
There is always a double membrane wall between the neucleon cells, and a single membrane wall below the electric charge shield. The larger deuteron membrane walls are thinner than the smaller neutron membrane walls. The double walls completely touch each other, without any space inbetween, making a cellular structure with "flat" faces and "sharp" bends. The membrane walls at the nuclide surface curve and abut together with "tight" seams.
The plasm of all the neucleon cells in any cluster always has the same fixed mass, it is the volume, and density that changes. The small changes in volume by the compressible plasm, gives the nuclide it’s precise physical size as defined by its charge radius. The specific volume contributed by the mass of the absolute density cores and membranes always remains fixed. In a nuclide the two core deuteron cells are denser than the one core neutron cells.
This difference in cell density is crucial, as it allows for a hydrodynamic flow of the lighter neutron cells in the core of electric supercells (black holes), allowing the neutrons to be sorted, "floated" to the core surface, transported to the poles, and then emitted as jets during the AGN phase. The denser deuterons remain with the core, increasing in number. See the diagram "Galaxy Electric Supercell Dynamics (Black Hole)"
Look at the direction of the arrows in the nuclide section diagram which indicate the direction of force exerted by the bodies. The direction of force of the three neutral matter particles that form the nuclide cluster (core, membrane and plasm), is always outward from a common cluster center, with an acceleration called g-rise. For example, the g-rise of Lead-208 is 7.61×10-7 m/s2. This natural acceleration-in-place of matter, which can only add, is the source of gravity in nature.
The tension within the 82 electric charge shells of Lead-208, each with a calculated average thickness of 0.2693 x 10-20 m, creates an equal and opposite reaction force, called g-fall, that is always inward, directly opposite to the g-rise of matter. The two forces will balance giving the nuclide its permanent size, shape and density. This size can be precisely measured, and is called the nuclear charge radius. For Lead-208 the charge radius is 5.5012 x 10-15 m. The density of Lead-208 at 4.9511 x 1017 kg/m3 is the greatest for any nuclide in nature. This is 73.98% of absolute density. This is also hypothesized as the maximum packing density of the neucleons in the supercell core.
The direction of the small pressure from accelerating space, also called g-rise, is always opposite to the g-rise of matter, and always in-line with the g-fall of charge. The isotropic acceleration of space free rise energy creates a universal inertial field, the source of Newton’s First Law of Motion.
A "strong" attractive force to hold the nucleus together is not required, the topology of electric charge is sufficient.
The atomic number (Z) of a stable nuclide is equal to the number of deuteron cells (ab) in the nuclide, each with a +2 spin and a 1+ charge shell. There are no free protons with a positive electric charge within the nucleus. The atomic number for Lead-208 is 82.
The atomic number Z is also equal to the number of electrons in the universe. The electrons carry the negative electric charge shell, the other half of the mirror-split plasm spin energy quanta. The model requires a one to one relationship between electric quanta and space quanta as both are made from the plasm at the same time with the little bang. It is estimated that the cosmic value of Z is ~0.87N.
The mass number (A) of a nuclide is equal to the number of spinning cores within the nucleus, which can only spin-up or spin-down with a common cluster axis, creating a net up or down nuclear spin. The spinning cores are magnets that add together giving the cluster a net magnetic field. For Lead-208 the mass number (and neu number) is 208. As there are an even number of deuterons and neutrons the spins and magnetic fields balance maintaining a net zero effect.
This is how we can begin to understand the atoms of nature.
See the Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table for the nuclear properties of about 350 natural and selected radioactive isotopes. The values shown above are taken from this table.
Use of Terms
Many common physical terms have a very different physical interpretation or meaning in the model, e.g., matter, electricity, space and light. There are several newly coined words, e.g., neu, neucleon, spinrise, spinergy, zomon. The Glossary provides interactive definitions of Neu Theory terms and other selected terms as used in the work.
The Neu Theory Model
The Neu Theory model is presented in Two Parts.
Part One consists of five conceptual tools underpinning the model.
Part Two consists of five hypotheses that describe the foundations of physical reality, using the ordinary, yet remarkable neutron, as the central player in a perpetual one way cycle of cosmic renewal.
In fact, it would not be wrong to say, that the entire universe is built from neutrons that exist in one of two natural states, the neutral a-state as the neutron whole, and the electric b-state as the hydrogen parts.
A good way to begin this journey is with Simple Object Topology, an intuitive method to easily understand the concept of shape.
Neu Theory asks basic questions about fundamental phenomena
- What is it?
- Where does it come from?
- How does it work?
Neu Theory answers questions
about the physics of nature
in one unified model
- What is energy?
- What is matter?
- What is time?
- What is force?
- What is magnetism?
- What is gravity?
- What is electricity?
- What is space?
- What is motion?
- What is light?
The Two Types of Matter
Type I Matter has a fixed absolute density at 6.693 x 1017 kg/m3. This density is empirically determined by dividing the proton mass by its volume as measured by the proton charge radius. If these values change the absolute density value will adjust.
The neutron core, the neutron membrane, the proton core, the electron ball, and the positron are Type I matter. Proton fragments made during high speed collisions are also Type I matter.
Type II Matter has a variable density. The neutron plasm is the only form of Type II matter in nature and it can only exist as a quantum part of a neutron.
The difference between the least and the greatest neutron plasm matter densities spans an amazing 24 orders of magnitude.
The densest plasm is with Lead-208 at 9.68×1014 kg/m3. A one centimeter cube of plasm at that density would have a mass of 290 Empire State Buildings.
The least dense plasm is with an ultra cold neutron at around 3.33 x10-10 kg/m3. A one centimeter cube of plasm at that density would contain approximately three one millionth (0.000 003) of a gram of matter.
The Two Types of Energy
1. Planetary satellites orbiting a stellar size electric supercell (black hole) will follow the galactic rule of a uniform orbital speed. This local hyper-field effect may be observable for orbiting planets around a stellar supercell within our galaxy.
Let us consider the “twins paradox” of relativity theory. Here it is claimed that two twins, one remaining on Earth while the other travels in space at speeds approaching the speed of light, will age differently because time slows down for the traveling twin.
In the Neu Theory model both twins will age alike as the quantum matter they are made of will undergo the same number of g-spins. It is hypothesized that the g-spin of quantum objects – as they already spin at the accelerating speed of light – does not change with relative motion irrespective of the particles kinetic speed.