The First Assumption
The first assumption by Neu Theory is that the universe as observed is in physical homeostasis. This simply means that there is no definable beginning or end to physical reality. What we observe now is what we will always observe. The universe will appear the same to any observer, at any place, at any historical moment of time. This is also known as The Perfect Cosmological Principle.
How can that be? How does the universe do it? Doesn’t the redshift of distant galaxies mean that the universe is expanding? This is a good question, and the answer is that we must first understand the physical nature of space and light before we can explain the cause of cosmological redshift.
Space & Redshift in Current Science
Until the early 20th century our Milky Way galaxy of stars, gas, and dust was considered the full extent of the universe. There were several fuzzy patches of light that clearly weren’t stars, but they were still considered part of the Milky Way.
In the 1920’s Edwin Hubble using 100 inch Hooker Telescope at Mt. Wilson, California conclusively showed that these fuzzy patches were individual galaxies discrete from the Milky Way. Instead of a small universe filled with many stars, the reality was that there existed a much larger universe filled with many galaxies.
In 1929 using his data, and the redshift data of these fuzzy patches previously measured by Slipher & Humason, Hubble formulated the Redshift Distance Law.
Redshift is the reduction in frequency of photons from the original atomic frequency of emission. Redshift is also a corresponding increase in photon size (wavelength) and a decrease in photon energy.
Hubble determined the distances to the galaxies by the use of a “standard candle” based on Henrietta Swan Leavitt’s period-luminosity relationship for Cepheid variable stars. A Cepheid variable star has a direct relationship between its absolute luminosity and its period, hence when we measure the star’s apparent luminosity and its period, we can calculate its distance away from the earth.
Hubble’s law states that there is a proportionality between the redshift of galaxies and their distance from Earth. The energy lost by photons (the redshift) is directly proportional to the distance from which they were emitted. Doubling the distance, doubles the energy loss.
This proportional redshift from distant galaxies was quickly inferred by scientists as a “Doppler” shift, meaning that the cause of redshift was the radial motion of the galaxies away from each other. The universe was expanding and the galaxies were separating and getting farther apart. The greater the distance between galaxies the greater the relative speed of their separation.
This apparent velocity of recession is measured by the Hubble constant and can be expressed as a radial speed per unit distance. The currently accepted value is a velocity of recession roughly 70 kilometers per second (km/s) per megaparsec. One million parsecs (Mpc) is a distance of approximately 3.26 million light years and represents a convenient distance scale between galaxies; for example; the distance to our neighbor the Andromeda Galaxy is approximately 0.78 Mpc (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, the distance to the Virgo Cluster, the nearest large group of galaxies, is approximately 16.5 Mpc (54 million light-years) from Earth.
It should be understood the Hubble constant is a measure of the universe on a larger cosmic scale. On a smaller galaxy scale the unit value of the constant at 70 km/s is smaller than the 220 km/s rotational velocity of the Sun around the center of the Milky Way approximately 8,000 parsecs (26,000 light years) away. The relative velocity of individual galaxies in groups and clusters of galaxies that are bound together can be larger than 1,000 km/s. Only as the distances increase does the Hubble constant begin to dominate. It is estimated that with distances around 4.5 gigaparsecs (14.7 billion light years) the radial velocity of separation between galaxies exceeds the speed of light.
Specifically the Hubble constant is considered as the “Hubble Flow”, the rate at which space is expanding. This is considered a “metric expansion of space”, where the physical distance between galaxies keeps increasing with time. As a consequence the volume of the universe increases with time and the average density of matter on a large enough scale decreases with time.
The Big Bang Theory of cosmology is based on universal expansion as a first assumption. It claims that based on this apparent rate of expansion, working backwards, approximately fifteen billion years in the past the universe began out of a singularity without volume that contained all the energy of nature.
In the 1990’s astronomical observations of the brightness and redshift of distant galaxies using Type Ia supernova as “standard candles” showed that the light from the exploding stars was dimmer than expected for the distances calculated based on redshift. This is taken to mean that the “metric expansion of space” is accelerating. Despite the attractive force of gravity, space is expanding faster today than it did in the past. The cause of this acceleration is attributed to a unknown form of “dark energy” that permeates all space causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate.
In Current Science the future of the universe is uncertain and open to speculation.
In Neu Theory the future of the universe is certain. What you see now, is what you will always see in the future. There is enough time in nature for everything to do what it can. Consider our own biologic existence which has taken billions of years of earth history in the making. That is the meaning of Cosmic Homeostasis.
Space & Redshift in Neu Theory
The question still remains: if space is expanding and the distance between galaxies is increasing as Current Science believes, how can the universe look the same over time as Neu Theory mantains? How does the universe do it?
The Neu Theory answer is simple. Yes, space is expanding but not in the manner Current Science believes, because the absolute movement of space does not separate matter. The large scale physical distance between galaxies is not increasing, there is no “metric expansion of space” that carries galaxies along with it.
What we call space, in Neu Theory, is the isotropic physical one-way expansion and diffusion-in-place of 0.87N zomons of free rise movement/energy at the accelerating speed of light. Space maintains a constant volume and density by a perpetual one way cosmic process of renewal.
The large scale spatial distribution of the galaxies that make up the cosmic web, and as observed by us today is perpetually maintained-in-place, through the means of a universal self-regulating cosmic cycle that continually manufactures fresh space to replenish the expansion and diffusion-in-place of existing space thus maintaining a relatively constant universal volume, and that is the reason the universe will always look the same.
The phenomena of cosmological “redshift” has a different cause than a “velocity of recession” that increases the physical distance between objects.
The truth resides in our understanding the nature of atoms, space & light.
The universe is expanding but not in the manner of current scientific theory. Space is accelerating but not in the manner of current scientific theory.
Neu Theory provides a model where atoms, space and light – the three principle components of the cosmos – are perpetually accelerating or expanding-in-place yet maintain a consistent relative size and spatial distribution. The nature of the acceleration and expansion and its effect on the universe as a whole is different for each component.
The Universal Acceleration of Atoms
The acceleration-in-place of matter is the individual g-spin and g-rise of the three primary matter objects (neutron, proton, electron) and the collective cosmic g-spin and g-rise of all number collections of the universal number N acting as a whole.
G-rise is purely a function of number and volume and results in the g-force and the spinfield effects. The acceleration of matter is a non-visual physical expansion that is experienced as a force by other matter objects that are themselves physically expanding at their own rate. The relative size between the self-rising matter objects and their large scale spatial distribution remains the same.
The acceleration-in-place of electricity is the g-fall compression of the positive and negative charge shells as they surround the spinning cores and membranes. With nuclides the positive charge shell layers act as tension bands that hold the non-spinning neucleons clustered together.
All the neu numbers (and their collections) of the universe are forever riding the crest of the same wave of universal acceleration in synchronized harmony. The acceleration never stops, slows down or changes direction. Natural acceleration provides the motive power that drives nature.
The Universal Accelerating Expansion and Diffusion-in-place of Space
Space is the one-way movement (expansion and diffusion-in-place) of free rise energy at the uniformly accelerating speed of light throughout the universe, not the puny 70 km/mpc Hubble flow. The movement of space (zome) is always at an absolute speed of 299 792 458 meters per second perpendicular towards and away from matter, whatever matter’s kinetic motion. The physical distance between matter objects is not changed by the expansion and diffusion-in-place of space. However, the large scale physical distance can increase or decrease by a change in density of space. Distant galaxies remain the same distance apart, more or less, with the same random motion as long as space energy maintains its volume and density.
The in-place-expansion and diffusion of the zome body is continuously being replenished by the “eternal springs” of fresh zomons during the active galactic nuclei (AGN) phase of the galactic matter cycle.
Based on observation, there are an estimated 7 %* of total galaxies at one time in the AGN phase. If this is true, than apparently one in every thirteen galaxies in the universe is currently in the space manufacturing phase of the galactic matter cycle.
The AGN emission provides a fresh supply of neutral a-state neutrons which quickly transform into the electric b-state protons and electrons releasing a spectrum of free rise energy pulses (zomons) that are needed to balance the universal one-way in-place-expansion and diffusion of free rise energy (zome). Free rise energy can only expand and diffuse one-way, and must topologically remain within the open-hollow volume made of 0.87 N zomons, meaning in principle there is no space (zome) beyond the openhollow.
To maintain cosmic homeostasis, the entire universal industrial complex of an estimated 500 billion galaxy factories must continually manufacture as much space as needed using the galactic matter/energy cycle as the means of production. The zomon production rate needs to match the zome in-place-expansion and diffusion rate. Only then can the universal volume of zome be maintained at a constant volume, pressure, and density.
Space is embedded with charge shielded matter in kinetic motion. All matter objects that are not charge shielded, such as the free neutron, or core matter collision fragments, are unstable. The neutron will spontaneously transform into the charge shielded proton and electron objects that are stable; and the collision matter fragments will eventually find nearby charge shielded nuclides to rejoin creating a chain-reaction of instability until some stable charge shielded nuclear forms are made.
There are two forms of matter embedded in space, neutral atoms & charged particles:
- Neutral matter consists of the cosmic web of atomic matter, bound in individual galaxy spinfields and multiple galaxy clusters, and including the neutral atoms of inter-galactic dust and gas.
- Charged matter consists of bound ions in magnetic fields, and the isotropic shower of free ions (cosmic rays) that traverse the web.
It is hypothesized that space interacts in a different manner with the neutral and charged matter embedded within it:
- Space decelerates the kinetic motion of unbound neutral matter. Unbound matter is matter that is not orbiting within a spinfield. This may be an explanation for the deceleration relative to the Sun by the two Pioneer Spacecrafts.
- Space accelerates the kinetic motion of unbound charged matter such as cosmic rays that travel a long time and distance in the cosmic web. The longer the charged nuclides travel the closer they get to the speed of light. This may be the explanation for ultra-high energy cosmic rays.
Space is filled with photons of light that are emitted and absorbed by atoms. The photons make a “continuum” of free spin energy bubbles that fill and are carried along with the one-way movement of space. Each photon is a unique physical entity with its own life history.
The Expansion of Light
The expansion of light is “redshift”. The isotropic free spin movement/energy of the photon does not naturally accelerate. As it interacts with the expanding (and accelerating) free rise movement/energy of zome, all cosmic light expands, losing energy that is eventually measured by us on Earth as redshift.
The entire radiation spectrum continuously shifts towards longer wavelengths. All photon bubbles are getting larger. Their individual rate of expansion – compared to their moment of birth – increases with age.
Cosmic light is the universal isotropic flux of a large number of photon “packages” of all sizes (a wavelength continuum) being bosonically transported from place to place by the “common carrier” Zome – the cosmic “FedEx” for light – at the accelerating speed of space. The speed of space “z” is identical to the speed of light “c.” Cosmic light can be visualized as a warm gas of discrete photons with different colors (energy) that are being individually carried in unique directions by the isotropic expanding-in-place open-hollow of space.
Photon bubbles, unlike the three primary matter objects, the neutron, proton, and electron, do not displace or add to the volume of space, they add to its spin energy density. The bubble’s energy remains as a coherent package being bosonically transported by space from its emission matter source in a specific direction (relative to the emitter) until its eventual receipt by another matter object. The matter objects including their charge shells are embedded in space. Space expands and diffuses-in-place at the accelerating speed of light, up to but never through or around the charge shielded matter objects. Space, matter, and charge are discrete, each adding their own form of physical volume to the universe. Photons come from atoms, are carried along by the movement of space until absorption by other atoms.
The photon bubble is a free spin energy addition on top of the free rise energy of space. The two energies do not mix, they remain discrete as they interact. The volume of space is not increased by a photon bubble, no matter how dense the photon flux, such as in a laser beam or immediately surrounding an exploding star.
Redshift is the continuous decrease in relative energy of all photon spin bubbles in the universe, one quantum spin at a time, from the internal pressure of zome that is expanding and diffusing-in-place within the bubble. The isotropic spin energy of the photon bubble, as long as it exists, is a closure motion at the non-accelerating speed of light, but it is still only physical motion, not physical acceleration like the free rise energy of zome.
There are two causes for redshift:
- The first cause of redshift is the right angle interaction between the photon’s spin closure energy bubble and the internal pressure on the bubble from radial expanding-in-place rise movement/energy that makes the bubble larger and results in the increase in closure time (a decrease in frequency) of the photon, thereby making the bubble have less energy, or “red shifted” from its starting value. The longer the time of travel by the photon, the more time for zome pressure to act, and the greater the redshift. This uniform decrease in spin energy of photon bubbles is the measured Hubble redshift. Unlike the current scientific view, the measured physical distance between the emitting galaxies and Earth will always remain more or less the same and is not increasing with distance. This is true for all galaxies within the cosmic web.
- The second cause of redshift is the additional long term effect of uniform universal acceleration (the aging factor) on individual photons. Photons that were born in galaxies billions of light years away, have lived and traveled a long time with expanding and diffusing-in-place Zome. They uniformly lose energy due to constant internal zome pressure, but they also lose energy relative to the long term natural acceleration of Zome. The rate of universal acceleration a is a small fraction of the speed of light c, but after a certain historical time period the speed of Zome z will accelerate until it is double the speed at the moment of the photon’s birth and keep on doubling.
The photon bubble starts with the historical diameter (wavelength) of its birth, and its free spin energy – which obeys the 2nd law of thermodynamics – and does not accelerate with time. The inverse of the wavelength is the photon’s frequency, and its energy is proportional to the frequency multiplied by Plank’s constant h. The longer a photon lives, its individual rate of aging (which is relative to the speed of space at the time of its birth) keeps getting faster. This accelerated aging effect on a photon is caused by the acceleration of the movement of space that is additional to the photon’s uniform energy loss from the internal pressure from an expanding-in-place zome with a maintained density.
The uniform rate of acceleration a of Zome is a small quantity relative to the current physical speed of Zome z at 299 792 458 meters per second. Neu Theory does not provide a value for the rate of uniform universal acceleration, it must be empirically determined. Despite the small value of this perpetual acceleration, after enough time it will double the speed of Zome. For short distances, while still present, the effect of acceleration on the redshift of a photon is not significant compared to the uniform energy loss from internal zome pressure. However, the longer distance a photon travels, the greater the added effect on redshift caused by acceleration. Based on the observed redshift of distant galaxies, after a photon has traveled approximately 5 billion light years, the increasing effect of acceleration on redshift has become significant.
Universal acceleration is the cause of the additional redshift of photons from distant Type Ia supernova. Dark energy is not required.
The Life of a Photon
Consider the universe from the point of view of a single photon. Just like us, a photon is a “real” thing during the duration of its existence, and similar to the way we consider ourselves on Earth, the photon is and will remain however far it travels, the center of its universe.
A photon has measurable physical properties, and a direction of travel. It has a moment of birth from some atomic or nuclear event involving matter, and it has either:
- A moment of death when it is absorbed by matter, as its free spin energy becomes the kinetic rise energy of matter.
- Or speculatively, should the photon live and expand long enough, an ever-lasting life as it reaches the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spin energy resonance that fills space. At the resonance the photon loses its individual identity, meaning it can no longer be associated with a specific source, and becomes part of the maintained universal isotropic body temperature of the cosmos at ∼ 2.73 K.
Photons are being absorbed and emitted by the entire cosmic body in homeostasis. One can only speculate on the physical process that maintains the CMB resonance peak wavelength. It is hypothesized by Neu Theory, that unlike the current scientific view, the peak wavelength will stay constant with time, not decrease. Perhaps, similar to its effects on galaxy spinfield orbits, the g-spin of the cosmos provides a natural harmonic accelerating floor to the free spin energy of the photon bubbles at that wavelength.
What is being accepted, is that the entire radiant spectrum from all the discrete sources in the universe, e.g., “little bang” photons, stellar radiation (including the radio frequencies whose photons are much larger than CMB photons), are red shifting into the spin energy continuum. Even the isotropic CMB photons must redshift as they cluster around a natural peak. All photons follow the same set of rules, there are no exceptions.
A Story of Two Photons
As a thought experiment, let us imagine the life of two photons (A and B), from their birth until the death of photon A by absorption in a Hubble Space Telescope spectroscope, and a continued existence for photon B as it passes into the CMB resonance and beyond.
For the purposes of this thought experiment we shall provide our photons special (“magic”) powers and tools that they can use as they travel. Our photons can “real time” communicate with each other dispite the distance they are physically part, and “see” other photons and matter objects at a distance. Just like us, our photons can see the cosmic web of galaxies in all directions.
Our photons also have a built-in measuring tape and clock that they can use to measure (in meters) and time (in seconds) themselves and other objects. The measuring tape and clock is calibrated by nearby protons. The standard unit of length can be calibrated by the circumference of any proton, and the standard unit of time can be calibrated by the quantum spin, of any proton.
Our photon bubbles of free spin energy began their life, when they were both formed at about the same time, by Calcium II atomic transitions during the peak luminosity of a Type 1a white dwarf star supernova explosion. Both photon bubbles were born and imprinted with a diameter (wavelength) of 393.3 nm, a frequency of 7.6225 x 1014 Hz, a closure time of 4.12 as, and 3.1524 eV of energy. Each photon bubble began its life more than 1000 times larger than the calcium atom wavelength (288 fm) from which it was spawned.
The supernova occurred a long time ago in a distant galaxy in the Constellation Cetus. In the dense isotropic flux of light from the exploding star, Photon A was emitted in a direction towards us on Earth along with a large bundle of many other similar photons from the Calcium II atoms. On the other side of the exploding star, Photon B was emitted in the exact opposite direction with a similar large bundle of photon bubbles. Both photon’s journey started as they were “picked up” by “FedEx” zome for a long ride with its one way expansion.
The movement of space, is the accelerating absolute speed of rise movement/energy, and always straight, meaning, space never bends, or causes any matter or radiant object to bend their direction of motion. The path of travel of our photons will be “bent” by the influence of matter spinfields, but not by the space that carries them. Our photons can be considered as “the only passenger on board” two space trains speeding in opposite directions. Every photon in the isotropic flux of light from the supernova has its own personal space train waiting to take it on the one-way ride of its life. The ride is not free, and has a cost that is measured as redshift. The longer the ride the greater the cost.
As our photon’s journeys began, they both did an initial measurement of themselves. They measured and note their circumference and diameter (wavelength) in meters, and their closure time – the time taken in seconds, for spin energy to go around the bubble once at the speed of light. The closure time is simply “pi” (3.14159…) divided by the frequency.
Photon A measured itself and noted that its diameter was slightly smaller, and its closure time was slightly faster than the imprint of its birth. Photon B measured itself and noted that its diameter was slightly larger, and its closure time was slightly slower than the imprint of its birth. The difference wasn’t much, but it was definitely there.
Both photons discussed with each other what they had noted. After reflection, they decided that three things had happened:
- As the star was exploding their parent atoms were in motion away from the site of the explosion when they were formed , thus, they gained a little energy making them both equally slightly smaller, or blue-shifted.
- They lost a little energy leaving the g-rise/spinfield hollow of their exploding star and this made them both slightly larger, or red shifted.
- Their exploding star was moving in the host galaxy, and the galaxy itself was moving as they were being emitted. Photon A was emitted in the direction of motion, hence “blue shifted”, and Photon B was emitted opposite to the direction of motion, hence “red shifted.”
After these initial adjustments, as they left their supernova birth source our photons stabilized in size. As they traveled they periodically re-measured their diameter and closure time to note any changes.
As our photons (along with their neighborhood bundle of emission bubbles) continued in their individual trajectories as part of an expanding shell of light, our self aware bubbles see and understand that they are part of an isotropic expanding flux of photons of different wavelengths from atomic element transitions taking place within their exploding source. They are free spin energy bubbles emitted from a radiant source being carried by space at the speed of space into a universe filled with matter.
At the back of each photon’s mind must be the thought “when am I going to hit something?” For a photon to survive it must not come in contact with a matter object and become absorbed thus ending its life as it transfers its free spin movement/energy into bound rise movement/energy by adding motion (the kinetic energy of heat) to the matter object that absorbed it.
As they travel with space, our two photons first see a continuous isotropic shower of other photon bubbles of different sizes bosonically passing through them or around them at the speed of space.(See Light Comparison Table). A large proportion of the isotropic shower of photons were in the microwave (CMB) part of the spectrum with a peak wavelength at 1.9 mm, a frequency of 160.2 Ghz, a closure time of 19.6 ps, and 0.66 meV of energy. The large numbers of photons of all sizes never interact with each other in any manner in their individual paths of travel. Like “spectrum ghosts” riding invisible space trains, they keep passing through each other with nary a notice.
As our two photons continue in their travel, they see an isotropic shower of cosmic rays, charged matter objects more than 1000 times smaller than our photons passing around them and through them at speeds less than the speed of space.
After more observation our photons realized that they were heading in a specific direction, towards some galaxies and away from other galaxies, at the speed of space. Light year after light year, they were being carried through gaps in matter fields, that kept coming and coming. From our photon’s perspective, it seemed that matter was doing all the moving, they saw themselves as at “rest” with space and in the center of the universe.
Periodically (perhaps every hundred thousand years or so) our two photons would re-measure themselves and note and discuss the results. After many measurements they began to notice that they were both getting larger and their closure time was increasing. At first the change seemed uniform with time. After discussion it was decided that the change was caused by the constant pressure of space within their bubbles. As the spin energy that formed their bubbles couldn’t push back, they kept getting stretched and larger. The longer they traveled the larger they got. They soon realized there was nothing they could do about it, they just had to accept and live with it.
After more time (many millions of years) and many more measurements, it became clear to our photons that their change in size was not uniform but accelerating. They were beginning to get bigger faster. The longer they now lived and traveled, the quicker they got larger. After much discussion it was decided this was caused by the acceleration of the speed of space, which only becomes noticeable after a much longer period of time. There was an “aging” factor at work. Again they realized there was nothing they could do about it, they just had to accept and live with it. The longer they lived and traveled the acceleration of their expansion was only going to increase.
For billions of years our photons traveled through the cosmic web, passing by and going through galaxy clusters, individual galaxies, inter-galactic sheets of gas and dust, and enormous volumes of space with little embedded matter except for the isotropic shower of cosmic rays that fill the universe.
As they traveled their “straight” path in space was “bent” by the matter spinfields they encountered which kept steering them in a slightly different direction.
In 2010 Photon A was absorbed by a spectroscope on the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the light from a supernova named “SN UDS10Wil”. It was noted by scientists that our photon bubble (along with its bundle of emission bubbles) had a redshift of 1.9, indicating it had traveled for more than 10 billion years.
Let us imagine that Photon B is still alive and well traveling away from us on Earth, getting larger and larger. If Photon B does not get absorbed by matter, one can speculate that eventually Photon B will reach and expand into and beyond the CMB resonance, lose its source identity, and become part of the free spin energy continuum that fills space.
Whatever the physical distance a photon travels between matter objects, it will never get any closer to the open-hollow boundary, it will always remain at the physical center of its universe. Unless the photon is absorbed by matter it will continue to exist and expand-in-place eventually reaching the cosmic microwave background frequency. After reaching the microwave background, the individual photon will disappear into the spin energy continuum of history.
Light Comparison Table
|Name||Wavelength (m)||Frequency (Hz)||Closure Time (s)||Photon energy (eV)|
|Gamma ray||less than 0.02 nm||more than 15 EHz||less than 21 as||more than 62.1 keV|
|X-ray||0.01 nm – 10 nm||30 EHz – 30 PHz||10 as – 10 fs||124 keV – 124 eV|
|Ultraviolet||10 nm – 400 nm||30 PHz – 750 THz||10 fs – 4.19 fs||124 eV – 3 eV|
|Visible||390 nm – 750 nm||770 THz – 400 THz||4.08 fs – 7.85 fs||3.2 eV – 1.7 eV|
|Infrared||750 nm – 1 mm||400 THz – 300 GHz||7.85 fs – 10.5 ps||1.7 eV – 1.24 meV|
|Microwave||1 mm – 1 meter||300 GHz – 300 MHz||10.5 ps – 10 ns||1.24 meV – 1.24 µeV|
|Radio||1 m – 100,000 km||300 MHz – 3 Hz||10 ns – 1s||1.24 µeV – 12.4 feV|
The open-hollow is filled with a continuum of radiation that is perpetually expanding-in-place, as it travels, into longer and longer wavelengths. The continuum of radiation is being added to by the atomic and nuclear emission of photons at discrete frequencies from stellar sources, as well as the emission of photons from all the other “kinetic heat” sources in nature.
A large number of photons come into the open-hollow from the atomic electro-kinetic bond of hydrogen at the closure of the little bang phase after AGN emission. The hydrogen photons are emitted at different discrete frequencies depending on the energy state difference between electron transitions. These are the well known Lyman, Balmer, Paschen series of spectral lines that are observed.
Galaxies in the AGN phase are more or less uniformly distributed throughout the open-hollow. Over extended periods of time this contributes to the isotropic homogeneity of the CMB.
The smallest wavelength photons are “gamma rays” from nuclear events. Photons of most frequencies can be made in the laboratory.
The Cosmic Open Hollow
The Cosmic Open-Hollow is a maintained volume of space filled with light. The rise energy of space , and the spin energy of light  are two different forms of energy that bosonically coexist together.
The Open-Hollow is also embedded with atoms which are objects made of matter  with the physical movement/synergy forms of magnetism  and the g-rise/spinfield . Matter is "jacketed" by electric charge shells [6+][6-] with electric fields [7+][7-], and matter is in motion . These fundamental forms of nature are physically bound together and act as one.
Together these five physical quantities – space, light, matter, electricity, motion – act in a manner that maintains perpetual cosmic homeostasis.
How do they do it? The key is the continuous creation of space. Matter and motion recycle electricity through the means of a galactic atomic matter cycle, which periodically releases fresh burst of space into the open-hollow that replaces the expansion and diffusion-in-place of space at an accelerating absolute speed. The light bubbles (radio waves to gamma rays) that continually traverse space are products of atomic electrical interaction, and nuclear matter transformations.
The space expansion and diffusion-in-place rate can be graphically calculated as the time at the speed of light for the open-hollow to double in volume. (Figure 5.4). The time is calculated as the difference between the open-hollow boundary radius (R1) and the imaginary doubled volume radius (R2) divided by the speed of light.Figure 5.4 – The Cosmic Whole[/caption]
From the “outside”, an imaginary, not a physical perspective, the open-hollow boundary is a topological and physical extent that can be schematically represented as a surface of a spherical bubble that contains all the atoms, space, and light of the universe. The “outside looking in” is a purely fictitious perspective, as in principle one can never be physically outside the universe. The only true physical perspective is an “inside looking out.”
The bubble is imagined as maintaining a relatively constant volume with a fixed radius (R1). The physical size of the volume is determined by observation and theory. There is no physical universe beyond the open-hollow boundary, only a topological void. The model defines a void as a place without matter or energy. The topological void surrounding the open-hollow, is given a number exactly equal to the number of electron topological voids at any time. As the universe expands into the void, metaphysically it expands into itself.
Space and light fill the bubble with uniform densities that can be estimated. A fixed amount (N) of matter is embedded within the volume as a cosmic web of galaxies, gas, and dust, and an isotropic shower of cosmic rays.
The model considers the open-hollow boundary as a topologically intact spherical surface that contains the expansion and diffusion-in-place of space. This can be considered a one-way movement into the future and away from the past. There is no space (zome) beyond the open-hollow boundary.
As a thought experiment, imagine the bubble surface expanding or contracting as the total volume of space changes. The total volume of space is maintained from the average volume of approximately 0.87N zomons that are being recycled by the universal matter cycle.
As the individual zomons expand and diffuse-in-place, fresh zomons are released within the bubble that equals the diffusion-in-place maintaining a constant universal volume and density of space. If the average volume of space per atom gets larger, the universal volume gets larger, and the rise energy density of space decreases. If the average volume of space per atom gets smaller the universal volume gets smaller and the rise energy density of space increases.
For cosmic homeostasis to occur the infusion of fresh zomons must equal the universal expansion and diffusion-in-place of zome. How does one measure universal diffusion-in-place?
As another thought experiment, imagine the bubble to have a “leaky” surface. The universe is analogous to a permeable membrane that leaks space through its entire hollow surface into a topological void at the speed of light. For the open-hollow to maintain its homeostasis volume, as much fresh space has to be manufactured within the open-hollow volume, as is topologically “leaking” through the open-hollow boundary surface. Of course in physical reality there is no leaking, as this would mean that energy is escaping outside the universe, which in principle is not allowed. There is only diffusion-in-place of space with time inside the open-hollow volume, the total energy remains constant.
The purpose of this thought experiment is to estimate the time it would take to double the volume of the universe at the speed of light. The larger the initial volume the longer it would take for the universe to double. It should be noted that the universe doubling, similar to the g-rise doubling of a matter object, is a purely topological concept, useful for calculating the amount of fresh space that is required to replace the existing space that is expanding and diffusing-in-place with time throughout the open-hollow volume.
From the “inside”, the open-hollow boundary is an imaginary surface, receding away from all observers at the accelerating speed of light. Physically, the recession of the bounding surface, does not make the universe measurably larger as the distance between objects does not increase. The open-hollow boundary physically contains all the matter, energy, space, and light of the universe.
The open-hollow volume (Z) is made from an average volume (z) associated with each zomon. A number of zomons equal to Z must be released in the doubling time to maintain space homeostasis. With Z set equal to 0.867N, and N set equal to 3.0 x 1079, makes Z equal to 2.6 x 1079 zomons. It should be emphasized that the number of zomons is directly proportional to the universal b-state (electric) number. This is entirely based on the actual distribution of atoms in nature. If the electric number changes the zomon number will correspondingly change.
In the Neu Theory model, the galaxy core supercell neucleon mass, has at least as many neutral numbers as electric numbers as it is made of deuterons and neutrons. Supercell core mass represents a significant quantity of universal matter, therefore it is possible the actual universal b-state is less than 0.87N, and perhaps more like 0.8N. However for our first calculation we will use 0.87N.
The galaxy supercell core releases fresh free a-state neutrons which spontaneously little bang into the b-state releasing fresh pulses of space. The spectrum of space pulse energies balances the kinetic energy of the electrons and cores keeping the total energy per little bang at 0.78 MeV.
It has been observed that the average energy of the emitted electrons in beta decay is ~1/3 of the invariant mass loss, approximately 0.26 MeV. Based on this fact, Neu Theory estimates the average zomon pulse carries the remaining 0.52 MeV, representing ~2/3 of the total mass delinked. With this average value the total maintained energy of Z is equal to ~ 1.35 x 1079 MeV. This represents approximately ~ 0.05% of the total rise movement/energy value of the universe calculated at ~ 2.8 x 1082 MeV.
Using the NASA value of one atom per 4 cubic meters and a b-state number at 0.87 N, each zomon has an average volume of 4.6 m3. This gives our model universe an approximate volume of 1.2 x 1080 m3, equal to a ball with a radius (R1) of 3.0 x 1026 m, or 32.3 billion light years. A ball with double that volume has a radius (R2) of 3.8 x 1026 m radius or 40.7 billion light years, a difference of 8.4 billion light years.
It is theorized that in 8.4 billion years a volume of 1.2 x 1080 m3 made from 2.6 x 1079 zomons will have topologically diffused-in-place with time, or diagrammatically “outside”, the open-hollow boundary of 32.3 billion light years as shown in Fig. 5.3. To maintain a homeostasis cosmic volume of zome an equal number of zomon space bursts will need to be freshly infused into the universe in 8.4 billion years. This implies that 2.6 x 1079 neutrons have to be recycled by galaxy supercell ejections within the cosmic open-hollow volume during a 8.4 billion years time period.
Using these values, the rate of ejection would be ~ 3.1 x 1069 neutrons per year, or 9.8 x 1061 per second. With a solar mass number of ~ 1.2 x 1057, makes this equivalent to a perpetual average ejection of ~ Eighty Two Thousand (82,000) solar mass number of neutrons every second throughout the cosmos.
Do astronomical observations support these numbers? Are there enough active galactic electric supercell cores (AGN) in the cosmos that are ejecting neutrons in sufficient quantities to replace the estimated universal volume of zome topologically expanding at the speed of light?
In one study* it was estimated that ~ 7% of observed galaxies are active, 93% are normal. This provides 3.5 x 1010 active galaxies from an assumed total of 5.0 x 1011 galaxies in the universe. At any moment approximately one out of thirteen galaxies in the universe is in its active phase.
There are many types and sizes of active galaxies observed. What many have in common is a bright light emitting region a few light days from the central core that is in the Balmer series of spectral lines indicating the presence of hydrogen. This is consistent with the ejection of neutrons hypothesis, the subsequent little bangs, and the synthesis of hydrogen.
With a required cosmic ejection rate of 9.8 x 1061 neutrons per second, on the average each of the estimated 35 billion active galaxies would need to eject ~ 2.8 x 1051 neutrons every cosmic second, to maintain homeostasis. Amazingly this is less than the mass number of the earth ~ 3.57 x 1051. Doesn’t seem like much.
Ultimately it is observation and reason that will determine the truth or falsification of any theory. There is more work needed to show if the Neu Theory model matches observation. The theory uses values that must be accurately determined. If the values inputted into the model are changed the model will correspondingly adjust.
* Ph. D. thesis, School of Physics, University of Sydney, 1994, ACTIVE GALAXY UNIFICATION, Alan Roy; Introduction, Fig 1-1