Observations & Experiments that Define Science
The Facts of Experience
The following observations and experiments have significant impact on human scientific thought. Here are 19 “facts of experience” that require a coherent explanation if we are to understand nature. The information is presented in two Tables:
- Table 1 – List of Facts notes the facts and provides some human historical context. The 1st column is the referance number. The 2nd column notes the specific fact or observation. The 3rd column notes human(s) associated with the fact. The 4th column notes the year of the first observation or experiment. Please Note: There are other persons who have contributed to our understanding of these phenomena that are not mentioned here, and the dates may be off.
- Table 2 – Interpretations of the Facts provides the scientific interpretations. The 1st column is the referance number. The 2nd column describes the specific fact or observation. The 3rd column is the interpretation of the fact as provided by Current Science. The 4th column is the interpretation of the fact as provided by Neu Theory.
Table 1 – List of Facts
|1||Motion||Aristotle, et al||4th BC|
|2||Magnetism||Peregrinus, et al||1269|
|3||Electricity||Gilbert, et al||1600|
|4||Orbiting satellites||Kepler, et al||1605|
|5||Acceleration of Falling Bodies||Galileo, Newton, Einstein, et al||1638|
|6||Double Hole Experiments||Young, et al||1803|
|7||Absolute Speed of Light||Michelson-Morley, et al||1887|
|8||Radioactivity (alpha, beta, gamma)||Thompson, Curie, Rutherford, et al||1897|
|9||Cosmic rays||Hess, et al||1912|
|10||Redshift of distant galaxies||Hubble, et al||1924|
|11||Discovery of the Positron||Anderson, Zwicky||1932|
|12||Discovery of the Neutron||Chadwick, et al||1932|
|13||Galaxy cluster velocities||Zwicky, Rubin, et, al||1933|
|15||Cosmic background radiation||Penzias-Wilson||1964|
|16||Galaxy rotation velocities||Rubin-Ford||1968|
|17||Pioneer spacecrafts anomaly||JPL/NASA||1980|
|18||Redshift of Type 1a supernovae||Perlmutter-Schmit-Reiss||1998|
|19||Supermassive "Black Holes" in all Galaxies||Astronomical Observations||2000’s|
Table 2 – Interpretation of the Facts
|# ||Experiment/Observation||Current Science||Neu Theory|
|1||Motion||Motion (or the change in motion) results from the application of a force.|
The fundamental forces of nature are:
c) weak nuclear force
d) strong nuclear force
|Motion  is one of three forms of natural movement. Motion, specifically meaning relative movement, is rise energy bound to matter. Motion is 2nd law energy and always less than the accelerating speed of light.|
Sources of motion:
a) the de-linkage of spinrise matter
b) the reduction in the movement/synergy potential of electric and magnetic fields, e.g., electron orbitals
c) the acceleration or deceleration of bodies by g-rise/spinfields
d) the acceleration or deceleration of bodies by the g-rise of space
|2||Magnetism is a force which we feel but cannot see. Unlike magnetic poles attract and like magnetic poles repel. The earth is a magnet.||Magnetism arises from two sources:|
1. Electric current
2. Nuclear magnetic moments
|Magnetism  is a movement/synergy force field made by the quantum g-spin of matter cores and inverted membranes (electrons) that add together to create a net residual magnetic field.|
|3||Electricity exists as two equal and opposite electric charges and electric fields. Unlike charges attract and like charges repel.||Electric charge is an intrinsic physical property of some forms of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. The electron charge is whole and equal to -1. The proton charge is whole and equal to +1. In current science particle theory the proton and neutron are made of three fractional electric charges (-1/3 & +2/3) that add up to +1 or 0.||The two electric charges are exactly 1/2 of the whole electric quanta. The charges are discrete (fixed volume) shells of topologically mirror-split absolute spin movement/energy that envelope the spinning neutral matter surface of electrons and protons, and the non-spinning neutral matter surface of the atomic nuclides. The electric charge shells [6+][6-] and electric fields [7+][7-] are each made from ½ x 0.000833u of quantum spin movement/energy that comes from the de-linkage of plasm matter [3a] during the “little bang” (beta decay) transformation.|
|4||Satellites remain in stable elliptical orbits around central bodies.||This is the result of universal gravitational attraction between bodies of matter that can be quantitatively described by Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, Newton’s laws of gravity, and Einstein’s curvature of “spacetime” concept using general relativity.||Satellites can free-ride the spherical g-rise/spinfield vortex  if they match a stable elliptical orbital speed established by the g-rising body. The spinfield vortex is a stable spherical movement/synergy projection into space made from the addition of a large number of quantum matter spinfields. The source of the spinfields is the natural g-rise acceleration of matter. When the g-rise of a body is less than c, the spinfield orbits follow Kepler, Newton, Einstein rules. When the g-rise of a body is equal to c the satellite orbits follow special hyper spinfield rules.|
|5||Free-falling bodies of different mass are equally accelerated towards the earth’s surface.||Free fall is the result of universal gravitational attraction between bodies of matter. The earth’s gravity, causes the same downward accelerating motion on free falling bodies of different mass, because there is an equivalence between gravitational and inertial mass.||Free fall is the result of a topological acceleration (the intrinsic physical movement of g-rise) of the earth’s surface outwards towards unbound objects (i.e., not on the surface and not in orbit) within its spinfield hollow sphere of influence. This movement by the earth can be felt but not seen. The movement of the free-falling body towards the earth is observed but not felt by the body.|
A topological acceleration of the local co-ordinate system(s) defining a spherical movement/synergy vortex in space .
|6||Double hole (slit) experiments using light or matter objects show a characteristic interference pattern.||Matter and light are both a particle and a wave.||Matter  and light  are particles, not waves. The characteristic light/dark pattern is a movement/synergy effect caused by the objects passing through a localized donut shaped g-rise spinfield hollow vortex  made by the double holes or slits. The natural harmonics of the spinfield vortex projection into the space within the hole causes the banding effect.|
|7||The Speed of light is the same in all directions.||This disproves the existence of a stationary medium (“luminiferous aether”) that fills space through which light travels. Space is a vacuum, and the speed of light is absolute.||Space (zome)  in Neu Theory is a dynamic (not stationary) medium that acts as an isotropic common carrier for the photons of radiant energy. The speed of photon travel in any direction is at the constant accelerating speed of space.|
|8||During beta decay the constant amount of mass lost must be converted into a fixed amount of energy. However some of the energy cannot be located. Where does it go?||The missing energy becomes the anti-neutrino.||The “missing” energy is not lost, it is converted into a variable quanta of space energy called the zomon. Beta decay or the little bang is the birth of the physical energy environment forms of electricity [6+][6-]][7+][7-], space , motion  and light .|
Space is filled with an isotropic shower of high energy fully ionized nuclides and electrons called “cosmic rays.” Some have ultra-high energies that are hard to explain.
|Cosmic rays are made by high energy events, i.e., supernovae, active galactic nuclei, quasars, etc. There is no current explanation for the cause of some ultra-high energy rays.|
Whatever the original source of the fully ionized nuclides and electrons, the ultra-high energies of some cosmic rays may be caused by the long term (billions of years) interaction of their charge shields with:
|10||The observed redshift of photons from galaxies increases in proportion to their distance from the earth.||Assuming the Hubble redshift is a Doppler effect, all galaxies are receding away from each other, the distance between galaxies is increasing, and space is expanding (~70 km/sec/Mpc). The net effect is that the average density of matter in space is decreasing. Looking backwards in time this implies that there was a moment in the physical past when the universe was very small, very dense, and had a beginning. The foundation of the Big Bang Theory.||The Hubble redshift is the result of ordinary photon-space interaction. Redshift is caused by the right angle interaction between the non-accelerating spin movement/energy of the photon bubble and the internal pressure from within, by the accelerating free rise movement/energy of space. |
Space is expanding and diffusing-in-place at the accelerating speed of light, however, with the continued input of fresh space quanta from active galactic nuclei, an average space density is maintained, and the large scale distance between galaxy clusters has reached homeostasis and is not increasing.
|11||Discovery of the positron in cloud chamber tracks during cosmic ray experiments. The positron interacted with an electron annihilating both.||Proof of antimatter. Standard Particle Theory requires that in principle all matter particles have an anti-matter counterpart.||There is no antimatter. The positron is an ordinary Type I spinrise matter ball made from the mass of captive protons[1b] in a nuclide, that is ejected into space covered by a single ordinary positive electric charge shell [6+]. The positron does not have the 2 surface shell topology of the electron membrane, and is specifically designed by nature to destroy electrons [2b][6-][7-] to maintain the rules of number.|
|12||Discovery of the neutron, indicating that the nucleus is made from only positively charged protons and neutral neutrons. There are no negatively charged electrons in the nucleus.||There must be an attractive force that binds the proton and the neutrons of a nucleus together, otherwise the strong repulsion between the positively charged protons would explode the nucleus apart, which isn’t seen to occur. Birth of the "strong force" hypothesis.||There is no electric repulsion within a nucleus because there is no electric charge [6+] within a nucleus. All electric charge energy is above the neutral nuclear surface. The nucleus is a cluster of neutral cells made from deuterons (ab), neutrons (a) and sometimes helions (abb) that is held together by the “tension jacket” of an electric charge layer shield (6+). The charge shield is made from the individual deuteron (or helion) charge shields that have migrated and fused in concentric layers above the neutral neucleonic membrane surface. A strong force is not needed.|
|13||The observed velocities of galaxies in bound clusters is greater than expected given the observed mass of the cluster.||Implies presence of some form of invisible (transparent to light) Dark Matter in the clusters that provides additional gravitational mass, otherwise at the observed velocities, the galaxies would fly apart, which isn’t seen to occur.||The cluster galaxies are bound (pinned) together by the collective g-rise of the individual galaxy spinfield hollows as they interact with the g-rise floor acceleration of the cosmic whole, and the g-rise pressure of space . The random velocities of the individual galaxies share the total rise energy bound as kinetic energy  to the cluster. Dark Matter is not needed.|
|14||During high energy collisions between electrons & protons in particle accelerators, it is observed that the electron remains intact while the proton breaks into pieces.||The proton is not a fundamental particle, but has a substructure. The beginning of the quark hypothesis.||Electron membranes [2b] and proton cores [1b] are made of homogenous spinrise matter which in principle has no substructure. The momentary proton fragments are small homogenous drops of ordinary Type I matter from the cores. Only one of the proton matter fragments can carry the positive charge shell|
Space is filled with an “black body” radiation that peaks in the microwave wavelengths. This is called the cosmic microwave background or CMB radiation.
|CMB radiation supports the big bang theory as a physical remnant of the primordial explosion. The radiation is considered a one time event that occurred when the early universe changed from being opaque to transparent. The radiation is made of hydrogen photons that have red shifted to the wavelength observed and they will continue to redshift into longer wavelengths in the cosmic future as the universe expands.||CMB radiation (~2.7°K) is the homeostasis internal body temperature of the cosmic whole. The radiation is a maintained resonance peak in the flux of arriving photons, ignoring local sources. The radiation is made of hydrogen photons that have red shifted to the wavelength observed, because the size of the universe has become stable. It is hypothesized, that as hydrogen photons are being continually made throughout the cosmos via the “little bang” process, the flux will remains relatively constant, meaning the resonance peaks will remain at the same wavelengths with time.|
|16||The observed speed of rotation by stars in galactic orbits does not follow Kepler dynamics, i.e., they do not slow down as they get farther from the galactic center but maintain a uniform speed.||The change from Kepler dynamics implies the presence of some form of invisible (transparent to light) matter in galaxies that provides additional gravitational mass, otherwise at the observed speed of rotation the stars would fly away from the galaxy which isn’t seen to occur. The basis for the Dark Matter Halo hypothesis.||The galaxy spinfield hollow vortex maintains a uniform orbital speed because:|
a) there is a hyper spinfield addition to the normal g-rise/spinfield effect, that is caused by a supermassive neucleon cluster ("black hole") at the center of a galaxy that is g-rising at the speed of light. Galaxy mass is sufficient. Dark Matter is not needed.
b) there is a g-spin acceleration floor of the cosmic whole body that adds to the dynamics of all spinfields in nature whether small or large.
|17||The uniform deceleration towards the sun by both Pioneer spacecrafts heading in opposite directions.||No clear unambiguous answer. Most likely hypothesis of the deceleration is a “thermal recoil force” caused by radiative anisotropy.||Electrically neutral matter in space that is not bound in orbit to a spinfield will decelerate in velocity relative to its source because it carries the non-accelerating 2nd law kinetic energy of motion which is continually interacting with the accelerating 1st law movement/energy of space, and thus decreasing in speed.|
|18||The acceleration of redshift by photons from distant Type 1a supernova||The universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. Space is getting bigger faster. Implies the presence of some form of Dark Energy that fills the cosmos.||The acceleration of redshift, is the added long term individual aging effect (added to the Hubble redshift) on each photon over longer moments of time, that is caused by the small continuous (one-way only) acceleration of the free rise movement/energy of space ∑. Dark Energy is not needed.|
|19||What are Black Holes? Astronomical Observations indicate these are common objects. Supermassive "Black Holes" are at the center of all galaxies. Both the mass of the "black hole", and the speed of stellar rotation are proportional (~0.5%) to the total mass of the galaxy.||A Black Hole is a region of spacetime containing a mass within the Schwarzschild radius, such that even light cannot escape its gravitational pull. Black Holes at the center of all galaxies opens the question, are Black Holes fundamental to the formation of galaxies?||The "black holes" at the centers of all galaxies are supermassive electric supercells consisting of an positive anode (+) core and a negative cathode (-) shell. These giant cosmic batteries are an essential part of the galactic matter/energy cycles that renew the universe. Their function is to receive, sort, and eject neutrons back into the cosmos , which by spontaneously transforming into hydrogen, inject fresh space quanta to replace existing expanding and diffusing-in-place cosmic space. |
The supercell‘s positive anode (+) consists of a supermassive neucleon cluster core @ ~ 0.74 absolute density (with a small size relative to the Schwarzschild radius). The core surface g-rises at the speed of light. The neucleonic surface is surrounded with a layer (est. 75 km thick for the Milky Way) of positive electric charge energy equal to the deuteron number. The negative cathode (-) is a dense electron plasma shell @ 1.5 Schwrarzschild radius, equal to the deuteron number, making the supercell externally neutral.