NEU Theory

NEU Theory

The Nature of Physical Reality

The Little Bang - Spontaneous Neutron Transformation

The Mystery of Beta Decay

In our quest to understand nature, we humans observe and conduct scientific experiments. The results of these observations and experiments are generally not in question, as they can be shown to occur repeatedly. It is our interpretation of the physical meaning behind these results, where the differences of opinion arise.

Some times these results are clear and easy to understand. Other times they come as a surprise, forcing us to think in new and unexpected ways.

The path we choose in explaining these results, may be correct, providing enlightenment, or it may just be wrong, and send us in a direction that only creates confusion, and takes us further away from our ultimate understanding of nature.

It should be clear by now that this writer believes, that beneath the seeming complexity, nature is truly simple and capable of being understood. Any physical concept that leads us away from simplicity, and instead, provides only layer after layer of endless complexity, is most likely a wrong path.

In this writer’s opinion, 90 years ago in 1930 with physicist Wolfgang Pauli’s neutrino hypothesis, just such a wrong path was taken. The harm done to our understanding of nature, by introducing the neutrino to explain beta decay, cannot be underestimated. What the neutrino did, was to take us away from a “physical” reality, with physical laws that are certain, towards a “virtual” reality, where anything can happen, despite how bizarre it may seem.

Radioactivity

The discovery of radioactivity had established by the beginning of the 20th century, that some atoms were unstable and subject to “decay”, by continuously emitting a steady stream of “particles”.

The first three types of particle radiation discovered, were called “alpha”, “beta”, and “gamma”. Alpha particles were fully ionized nuclei of the helium-4 atom, beta particles were ordinary electrons, and gamma radiation was the emission of high energy photons.

Beta Decay

In 1911, more than one hundred years ago, experiments started to indicate that the energy of the emitted electrons during beta decay, was not uniform, but varied. By 1927, the continuous spectrum of beta decay had been clearly established. The problem that scientists faced, was that a certain amount of energy could not be accounted for. Unlike alpha particles, which were all ejected with about the same speed, the electrons were being ejected with variable speeds. Yet the mass dematerialized in the radioactive transition, was a fixed amount, that represented more than what could be attributed to the combined kinetic energies of the emitted electrons and recoiling nuclei.

Once in a while, there were electrons with velocities that carried close to the fixed amount of energy released in each radioactive event, and then there were some electrons, which carried almost none. The average kinetic energy of the electrons was around one third of the total energy released. Approximately two thirds of the energy could not be accounted for.

The fundamental relationship between mass and energy had been shown by Einstein in his famous equation E=mc2, meaning the difference in mass represented a definite amount of energy. So it was understandable to assume, that the “missing mass” must have been converted into some other form of energy, but what form, and where did it go?

All efforts to find where this “missing mass” energy had disappeared to completely failed. A definitive experiment (Ellis and Wooster, 1927) involved placing the electron emitting source within a sensitive calorimeter – an apparatus for measuring the amount of heat involved in a physical process. The purpose was for the thick container to trap all the energy produced by the radioactive events and convert it into heat which would then be measured. Surprisingly, no heat was generated, except that which came from the average kinetic energy of the continuous electron spectrum, and recoiling nuclei. Whatever form of energy, that was being produced by the missing mass, was apparently disappearing through the sealed container without leaving a trace of heat.

Apparent Violation of Conservation Laws

The mystery of the missing mass in beta decay was however, only the first of three problems facing scientists.

1. The first problem was that the conservation of energy seemed to have been violated, unless the missing energy released from the reduction in mass could be attributed to something else.

After Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron in 1932, it became clear that during beta decay, the emitted electron was made from a nuclide neutron, leaving a proton in its place, essentially creating a different chemical element.

This significantly clarified the nature of atomic structure. The electron was a “new” electron, with a negative charge (-1) and a “new” proton with a positive charge (+1) remained with the nucleus. Add a (-1) charge and a (+1) charge, and you get zero charge, which was the same as the original neutron. Net charge was balanced, and thus did not present a conservation issue.

Where these positive and negative charges came from – as the neutron has never been found to contain any form of electric charge – was not addressed. Electric charge has always been considered an intrinsic property of protons and electrons.

2. The second problem was that the conservation of angular momentum (spin) seemed to have been violated with beta decay. In the current scientific paradigm, spin in nature is balanced, meaning there as many “right hand” spins, as there are “left hand” spins, and they both add up to a net zero spin. In this view nature does not allow the addition of one spin, without adding its opposite. The decaying neutron had spin, and now, both the new electron, and the new proton have spins. Irrespective of how the spin unit is symbolized (½ or 1), one unit of angular momentum, had become two units of angular momentum. Whether the spins added or canceled, was not important, it looked like angular momentum had been created, violating a seemingly fundamental principle. Therefore, it was hypothesized, that there must be some third entity, with one unit of angular momentum, that canceled out one of the spins.

Later experiments (Wu, 1957), would make it clear, that the electron emerged in a preferred direction relative to nuclear spin. This supported the view, that in beta decay, the spins of the proton and the electron, are in the same direction as the neutron from which they were made, requiring the hypothetical third entity to have an opposite spin.

3. The third problem was that the conservation of linear momentum seemed to be violated. This is Newton’s 3rd law of motionaction is equal and opposite to reaction. Using the radioactive nucleus or neutron, as a moving frame of reference, the momentum of the nucleus or neutron prior to decay, can be considered as zero. Conservation of momentum requires, that the momentum carried by the fragments, also add up to zero. What was observed, was that the momentum of the recoiling nucleus was relatively constant, while the momentum of the emitted electrons continuously varied.

Experiments also showed, that the electron and the recoiling nucleus, did not move exactly opposite each other – there was a definite angle of emission. This fact alone, also represents a violation of the conservation of linear momentum law, unless there were three (or more) entities, capable of carrying the momentum needed to balance the forces.

A crude analogy would be as follows: consider several lined up cannons of identical weight, each loaded with the same weight of gunpowder, and identical weight cannon balls. The total weight is exactly the same for each cannon, and the lines of all barrels were parallel. The line of the barrel is our reference direction of motion that must conserved before and after firing.

After firing, each cannon would recoil the same distance, but at a slight angle to the line of the barrel, meaning, the motion was not exactly straight back, but consistently slightly off to one side. The cannon balls, however, would travel different distances from the cannon, and different angles to the line of the barrel.

The difference in the weight, between the cannon + gunpowder + cannon ball before firing, and the weight of the cannon + cannon ball after firing was always the same, meaning none of the gunpowder remained with the cannon. This could only mean, that only part of the gunpowder was adding kinetic energy to the cannon and cannon ball, the remainder of the gunpowder, was going somewhere else. But where?

So in the 1930’s to explain the experimental results of beta decay, and to satisfy fundamental conservation laws, scientists needed an entity with some remarkable properties:

  • the entity was neutral and not influenced by electric or magnetic fields.
  • The entity was capable of carrying a significant amount of energy, representing on the average about 2/3 of the total mass energy released (~ 0.52 Mev) in the radioactive decay.
  • The entity had no (or little) mass and possibly traveled at the speed of light.
  • The entity was in some energy form that was able to escape the decay container without generating heat. In effect, a thick matter barrier that stopped all other known particles and radiation, was transparent to this entity. This meant in scientific terms, that the entity had such a small “cross-section” (probability of interaction) that it could freely travel through light years of solid lead without being absorbed.
  • The entity, despite the assumption it had no mass, was capable of carrying linear momentum, and was emitted in the precise direction needed, to conserve momentum. The idea of a massless entity carrying momentum was not unreasonable, as the photon has no mass, yet is considered to have momentum (hv/c).
  • The entity, despite the assumption it had no mass, was capable of carrying angular momentum with 1/2 unit of spin, in the direction needed, such that, the combined angular momentum of the fragments, did not change the original angular momentum of the source. According to current science, this made the entity a “fermion”, obeying Pauli’s Exclusion Principle which states “that fermion’s cannot share the same quantum state” – meaning fermionic entities must remain separate and cannot overlap each other.

The Neutrino is Introduced

An entity to satisfy the above requirements, was initially conceived by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, and subsequently developed in theory by Enrico Fermi in 1934. The entity proposed was the neutrino (and the anti-neutrino), physical objects that cannot be directly observed and whose existence can only be indirectly inferred.

The theory of beta decay, or the “weak” interaction, as developed by Fermi, included three types of nuclear events:

  • The first type, was a neutron (free or bound in a nucleus) changing into a proton, an electron, and an anti-neutrino.
  • The second type, was a proton in a nucleus changing into a neutron with the emission of a positron and a neutrino.
  • The third type, was a proton in a nucleus changing into a neutron by electron capture with the emission of a neutrino.

The first type of interaction, destroyed neutrons, the second and third types of interactions, made neutrons.

The impact of the anti-neutrino and neutrino on scientific thought is profound and cannot be underestimated. It would not be unfair to say that the foundations of particle physics as represented by the “Standard Model” require them. The anti-neutrino and the neutrino have to exist, because without them, we are back to the questions faced before 1930 without clear answers, or a direction to explore.

Beta Decay Experiments

The simplest beta decay is the spontaneous transformation of a free neutron, and it is this radioactive event, that we now examine.

A large amount of free neutrons, are released from reactors during atomic fission. This has provided a readily available source, and the beta decay of free neutrons, has been studied in great detail for many years. As experimental procedures and equipment have improved, our ability to measure this transformation with greater precision, has correspondingly increased.

black circle with a black ball representing the neutron and a black box containing two black balls with red auras representing the proton/electron matter couple Figure 3.1 – The Little Bang Transformation[/caption]

Figure 3.1, is a diagram showing the typical beta decay of one average neutron, based on experimental observation of large numbers of free neutrons, with known initial properties. The diagram does not represent a specific experiment, and is not drawn to any scale. It is a schematic composite, showing the results of many experiments, that clearly indicated the dilemma facing scientists, and how Neu Theory explains the results. The graphic representations of the neutron, proton, and electron, are the ones used by Neu Theory. They are not how these “particles” are symbolically shown by current science. The experimental results that need to be explained remain the same.

In the diagram left, is the neutron source, typically an atomic reactor that produces copious amounts of neutrons, by the fission of a radioactive substance. The neutron beam exits a small hole in the wall of the reactor, and then enters a detection chamber through a tube from the left, and exits the chamber, through a tube on the right. where the remaining neutrons are stopped by an absorption material.

In the middle of the chamber there is a gap in the tube of a known distance. This is the decay volume. The products, created from the neutrons that decay during their time of travel through this gap, are the ones that are measured.

The chamber is designed to trap energy from radioactive events, and consists of a sensitive calorimeter and detectors on the interior surface, that signal when struck by a proton or an electron. For each individual neutron decay, the detectors are able to measure the speed and direction of emission, of both the electron and the proton. The direction of motion, is measured using the original spin axis of the polarized neutrons, as the common standard of reference. All measurements of the decay products, are relative to this spin axis.

In diagram 3-1, the hypothesized neutron matter structure is shown with the symbol notes [1a][2a][3a]. The symbol note [4] indicates that the neutron is a natural magnet, and symbol note [5] indicates neutron matter (just like all matter) undergoes g-rise acceleration. G-rise (gravity) is an fundamental form of nature which cannot be seen, only experienced.

Before the neutron beam enters the detection chamber, by the use of various devices (not shown in the diagram), the initially high velocity, or “hot” neutrons, are reduced to a uniform stream of low velocity, or “ultra-cold” neutrons. The slower neutrons, will spend a longer time passing through the decay volume, providing the opportunity for more of them to decay, and thus allowing more events to be counted.

By the use of a strong external magnetic field, Symbol note [4], and a spin-flipping device (not shown in the diagram), the neutron beam becomes fully polarized. This means that the spin of all the neutrons, is aligned in the same direction. What is shown in the diagram, is a neutron with its spin “up” with a right hand rule. The thumb represents a north pole. With this spin orientation, the magnetic north pole of the neutron (similar to the earth’s current magnetic north pole), is pointed “down”.

In Neu Theory, all measurements of atomic mass, use a scale where the neutron is equal to one absolute atomic unit of mass (1.000 000 neu). See Neu Mass & Charge Radii Table. It should be emphasized that using this atomic mass scale does not change the neutron’s (or any other atom’s) physical mass value in kilograms, or its equivalent energy value in electron volts or joules. All it means is that the value of a neutron atomic unit is slightly larger than 1/12th of the Carbon-12 atomic mass unit as is currently used by science, thus making the Carbon-12 atom equal to 11.896 901 neu. Only the standard for relative mass is changed, the mass itself does not change.

As the polarized ultra-cold neutron beam passes through the decay volume, some of the neutrons will spontaneously decay, and the chamber detectors will document the results. What is shown in Figure 3-1, are the products of one decay event, that is the average of a large number of events. The experimental device is capable of determining the specifics of each event with some clarity.

The proton, Symbol Notes [1b][6+][7+][4][5][9a], with an invariant mass of 0.998 623 neu, will travel up in the chamber, hit a detector and be counted.

The electron, Symbol Notes [2b][6-][7-][4][5][9b], with an invariant mass of 0.000 544 neu, will travel down in the chamber hit a detector and be counted.

The difference in mass between the original neutron, and the combined mass of the proton and electron products, is always exactly equal to 0.000 833 neu (approximately 1.395×10-30 kg).

In current science, the energy equivalence of this amount of mass (E = mc2), is equal to 0.7827 MeV or 1.25×10-13 Joules. It is only this amount of energy, that current science requires to be accounted for in some manner. Neu Theory in principle doubles this amount.

The proton’s magnetic polarity [4] is opposite to the neutron, i.e., the proton’s magnetic north pole is pointed up. Remarkably the magnetic dipole of the spinrise core has flipped in polarity, without a change in g-spin direction! By convention, this means, that the proton core’s magnetic dipole vector is now “parallel” with its spin vector. The proton’s magnetic strength is almost 50% greater (+1.46) than the neutron’s (-1.0).

The electron’s magnetic polarity [4], is the same as the neutron, i.e., the magnetic north pole is pointing down. Again by convention, this means, that the electron’s (and neutron’s) magnetic vector is “anti-parallel” with its spin vector. The electron’s magnetic strength, is almost 1000 times greater (-960.92) than the neutron’s.

While the neutron has never been found to have an electric charge, the proton has a positive electric charge [6+] and a positive electric field [7+]. The electron has an equal and opposite negative electric charge, [6-], and a negative electric field [7-]. The appearance of the electric charges and electric fields is clearly something new.

Proton Momentum

With this spin orientation of the neutrons in the beam, the emerging proton moves upward in the diagram. The proton’s spin-up vector, remains parallel with the original neutron’s spin-up vector, however, the proton’s momentum and kinetic energy vector [9a], goes off at a slight angle (θ1) in the moving frame of reference. During beta decay, the proton’s momentum vector does not remain parallel with its spin vector. The proton’s (and neutron’s), momentum vector is not required to align with its spin vector, and the spin-up vector can point in any direction relative to the proton’s direction of travel.

Based on the time and distance of travel, from the time of neutron decay, until it is counted by a detector, the proton’s velocity, and thus its momentum and kinetic energy [9a], can be determined, and is found to fall inside a narrow range. With experimental uncertainty, the proton recoil can be considered as approaching a constant.

Electron Momentum

With this spin orientation, of the neutrons in the beam, the emerging electron moves downward in the diagram. The electron’s momentum vector and spin-up vector are pointing in exactly opposite direction. By convention, opposite directions are said to be anti-parallel.

Unlike the proton, the electron’s spin-up vector does not remain aligned with the original neutron spin vector axis, there is a definite angle (θ2), between the two spin axes. The electron’s direction of spin did not change, the electron is still spin-up, but its momentum vector, is exactly opposite to its spin vector. This relationship is permanent. Free electron’s, and electron currents (unlike protons and neutrons, which can move in any direction relative to their spin axis), will always be found moving, in the exact opposite direction to their spin-up axis.

Based on the time and distance of travel, from the time of neutron decay, until it is counted by a detector, the electron’s velocity, and thus its momentum and kinetic energy [9b], can also be determined, and is found to vary from a small amount up to a maximum. With experimental certainty, the electron can be considered to have a continuous spectrum. Also, the electron’s direction of motion, is not exactly opposite to the proton recoil. There is a definite angle between the two motions and spins. These two facts, are what created the linear momentum problem.

To summarize, as it travels up away from the decay volume, the proton spins in the same direction as the original neutron. As it travels down away from the decay volume, the electron also spins in the same direction as the original neutron. All three objects, the neutron parent and the proton and electron children, have the same direction of spin! They are all “thumbs up”, and if all neutrons, proton, and electrons are the same, by inference, the entire universe of matter is thumbs up. This was indicated by the 1957 Wu experiment, and clarified the specifics of the angular momentum problem.

The “Missing Energy”

After the kinetic energies of the proton and electron are added, they do not (at least most of the time) equal 0.7827 MeV (1.25×10-13 Joules), the total amount released according to current science. On the average, two thirds of the energy, ∼ 0.52 MeV (0.83×10-13 Joules) cannot be accounted for. In Figure 3.1, this “missing mass” energy is noted with the symbol [8]. The symbol [8] is shown outside the experimental box, meaning, it is no longer confined within the container but has gone somewhere else. It is this energy that current science gives to the neutrino “particle”.

The Little Bangs Hypothesis

We now discuss the Neu Theory interpretation of the results of the beta decay experiments. This is called “the little bangs hypothesis” and is the third of the five foundation hypotheses of the theory.

However, we first need to change the term “beta decay”, into “ the little bang” or “spontaneous neutron transformation.” The word “decay”, implies a decline or deterioration, where as neutron transformation, is anything but that. What occurs in this transformation, is something amazing, a remarkable change by nature, where instead of something being lost, something miraculous is gained.

The little bang is the topological precursor to memory, sex and gender attraction in nature.

Also, what is created, is the physical energy environment we all inhabit, and without which we could not exist. What occurs, in this one spontaneous act, are multiple births:

  • The birth of the matter couple
  • The birth of electricity, with the electric charge shells and electric fields that envelop the proton and electron matter couple.
  • The birth of a fresh quanta of space.
  • The birth of kinetic motion by the proton and electron
  • The birth of a photon of light, soon afterwards, with the synthesis of hydrogen.

Pre-Transformation Topology

Figure 3-2,  is a diagram of the neutron prior to its spontaneous transformation, that shows the source and distribution of the future environmental energy.

Symbol [1a], represents the spinning neutron core, with its magnetic field [4] which is symbolically shown with the color green. The neutron is shown spin-up, with its magnetic north pole down. Magnetism is considered a movement/synergy force, that is created from the quantum spin of the matter core.

The core is hypothesized to have exactly 0.998 623 neu of mass, the same as the future proton, which it becomes after transformation. Core mass is at the absolute density of 6.693 034 x 1017 kg/m3, with a diameter of 1.68368 x 10-15 m, giving it a specific volume of 2.499 063 x 10-45 m3. The core is shown in a solid black color, which symbolizes it is pure homogenous spinrise matter at an absolute density, without any intrinsic electric charge or electric field.

black circle shaded grey with a black ball at its center representing a neutron. There is one dotted red circle and four dotted blue circles in the grey area representing the future division of spin and rise energy Figure 3.2 – Neutron Pre-Transformation Topology[/caption]

Symbol [2a], represents the neutron membrane with a 2 surface topology. The membrane does not have a spin or a magnetic field at this time. The membrane, is hypothesized to have exactly 0.000 544 neu of mass, the same as the future electron, which it becomes after topological inversion and shrinkage. Membrane mass is also at the absolute density of 6.693 034 x 1017 kg/m3, with a fixed volume of 1.042 29 x 10-48 m3.

The membrane is malleable and pliable, which allows it to stretch, making the overall neutron larger or smaller and to deform its shape, thus changing away from a symmetrical ball when needed, e.g., a peanut shape in a nucleus. However, the membrane shell is considered by the model, to get uniformly thinner or thicker, as it stretches and deforms. The membrane is shown in a solid black color, which symbolizes, it is also pure homogenous spinrise matter, at an absolute density, without any intrinsic electric charge or electric field.

Symbol [3a], represents the neutron plasm contained between the core and the membrane. The plasm does not spin and is without a magnetic field of its own. The plasm is hypothesized to have exactly 0.000 833 neu of mass, the difference between the total neutron mass and the combined mass of the future proton and electron. This is approximately equal to 13.952 161 x 10-31 kg.

The plasm is shown in a solid grey color, which symbolizes, it is pure homogenous spinrise, without any intrinsic electric charge or electric field. However the plasm matter is not at the absolute density of spinrise, but changes in density, as the membrane hollow volume gets larger and smaller. Symbolically, the color will also change, becoming lighter or darker shades of grey.

It is a fundamental assumption by Neu Theory, that matter is made from two primal equal quantities of movement/energy, spin and rise, that are linked together to make a homogenous mass. Therefore 13.952 161 x 10-31 kg of mass, is considered by Neu Theory, to have twice the amount of energy assigned by current science. The plasm matter contained in the neutron hollow, consists of 0.7827 MeV of spin energy + 0.7827 MeV of rise energy. For convenience, any type of energy units can be used, but there are two equal quantities of each form of movement/energy contained by the plasm.

Symbolically to distinguish in the diagrams, that two different forms of energy are present, spin energy is shown in the color red, and rise energy is shown in the color blue. With core and membrane matter, red plus blue equals solid black. With plasm matter, red plus blue equal shades of grey depending on the hollow volume and corresponding plasm density.

Referring to Figure 3.2, the plasm volume [3a], is shown with one thick dashed red circle, two thick dashed blue circles, and two thin dotted blue circles. These red and blue circles, are symbolic, of the two energies that are linked together as plasm, and their future distribution after transformation. As the two energies are homogeneously linked together, there is no separate red and blue color in the plasm volume, at this time or any other moment of its existence.

Spin Energy (red)

The single thick dashed red circle divides the neutron plasm volume into two equal volumes. The red circle, is symbolic of the future mirror splitting (unzipping) by 0.7827 MeV of absolute spin movement/energy into the discrete surfaces of the positive and negative electric charge shells that will remain permanently connected by the electric field.

The volume next to the neutron core [1a], is designated with the symbols [6+] & [7+], and represents the future free spin movement/energy of the positive electric charge shell, and the potential energy of the positive electric field that will surround the future proton, and is equal to exactly one half of the total spin movement/energy content of plasm matter.

The volume next to the neutron membrane [2a], is designated with the symbols [6-] & [7-], and represents the future free spin movement/energy of the negative electric charge shell, and the potential energy of the negative electric field that will surround the future electron and is also equal to exactly one half of the total red spin movement/energy content of the plasm.

Whatever the size (diameter/wavelength) of the neutron prior to transformation, the red circle will always divide the total plasm volume, exactly in one half.

After neutron transformation, 100% of the de-linked red spin movement/energy becomes the environmental energy that we know as electricity.

There are several good reasons, why spin energy has not been recognized as a separate entity by science, even though it makes up one half of the total energy of the universe:

  • More than 99% of the spin energy of he universe is locked away with matter.
  • Spin energy carries no inertia. Like a photon of light, also a form of spin energy, spin energy does not add weight (mass) to the matter it forms. Only the rise energy linked with the spin energy adds weight, and that is perhaps why, when matter has been converted into energy, only the value of the rise energy has been counted.
  • Electric charge, the source of electricity, has always been considered as an intrinsic, inseparable property of a charged object, such as the proton and the electron. Even the fractional charges of the hypothetical quarks are considered to be diffused throughout their body whatever that might consist of. Certainly not a discrete form of energy, physically attached to the surface of a matter object.
Rise Energy (blue)

Again referring to Figure 3-2, the two thick dashed blue circles divide the total neutron plasm volume into three unequal volumes designated [9a], [8], & [9b]. The blue circles are symbolic of the division of 0.7827 MeV of rise energy contained within the plasm matter.

  • The small volume next to the neutron core [1a] is designated [9a], and represents the amount of rise energy converted into the recoil kinetic energy of the future proton. As the proton recoil is relatively constant, the volume contained by [9a], is also relatively constant.
  • The volume next to the neutron membrane [2a], is designated [9b], and represents the amount of rise energy converted into the kinetic energy, carried by the departing electron. The volume represented by the thick dashed blue circle [9b] is approximately one third of the total plasm volume [3a], and represents the average kinetic energy of the electron spectrum. The two thin dotted blue circles, designate the two extremes (minimum/maximum), of the electron kinetic energy spectrum. The thin dotted blue circle closest to the core [1a] defines the maximum plasm rise energy, carried as kinetic energy by the electron, and the thin dotted blue circle close to the membrane [2a] defines the minimum plasm rise energy, carried as kinetic energy by the electron.
  • The plasm volume between the future proton kinetic energy volume [9a] and the future electron kinetic energy volume [9b] is designated as [8]. Symbol [8], represents the absolute rise movement/energy value that remains, after the kinetic energy values of the future proton and future electron have been subtracted. This is equal to the variable “missing” energy of beta decay, that required the introduction of the neutrino hypothesis. If there is no neutrino, where does all this energy go?

Neu Theory has a simple answer, the “missing’ energy of beta decay is not missing at all, and it does not become the neutrino or the anti-neutrino of current science, it becomes the energy of ordinary space. What has just been created with neutron transformation, along with electricity, are the environmental energies of space & motion.

With neutron transformation, a total of 0.7827 MeV of rise energy is de-linked. A variable part of that becomes the kinetic energy bound to the electron. A small relatively constant part becomes the kinetic energy bound to the recoiling proton. The remainder, becomes a free rise (blue color) object of space energy, that Neu Theory names the “zomon.”

The zomon is a space quanta. The zomon is an exponentially expanding and diffusing-in-place ball of free rise energy at the accelerating speed of light, that within a small amount of time (approximately three billionth of one second), merges and disappears into the stable density of universal isotropic bosonic expanding & diffusing-in-place free absolute rise movement/energy that Neu Theory calls “Zome”, and which we commonly call universal space.

Space is a bosonic expansion and diffusion-in-place of free rise energy at the accelerating speed of light. By bosonic, we mean here, that the energy of space can merge and overlap without hindrance. As we have all been taught atoms of matter are mostly space, it is therefore not surprising that any container made of atoms, is unable to trap and measure a zomon, at least by conventional methods.

At this time a good question can be asked. If space is the expansion and diffusion-in-place of rise energy at the accelerating speed of light, won’t space eventually diffuse itself (fade in color) out of existence? The answer is simple, and discussed in more detail in Part 5 – The Recycling Universe Hypothesis, but a short version is provide here.

Yes, space would diffuse itself out of existence if it were not for the fact that fresh expanding zomons are being created by the little bangs of the universe. The rate of creation balances diffusion, and thus maintains a cosmic density of space that fluctuates within narrow limits. That is the role played by the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN’s) that populate the universe.

Spin-off Transformation Topology

Figure 3.3, symbolically represents what Neu Theory considers, are the major sequence of topological events, that occur during spontaneous neutron transformation. The diagrams are imaginary, and show the topological relationships that are maintained (or changed), during transformation. To emphasize, the diagrams are not to any scale, and are only symbolic. They should only be taken as, a topological description of what physically takes place. While the transformation occurs within a definite period of time, no time intervals are associated, with any of the major steps in the sequence.

Axial Cross Section

Figure 3.3a, is the original neutron (prior to membrane spin-off), shown cut in half(any longitudinal great circle), with a spin-up orientation.

four drawings showing how the neutron core penetrates through the neutron membrane during the little bang to create electricity, space and motion Figure 3.3 – Neutron Transformation Sequence[/caption]

The three part structure is the neutron core [1a], the neutron membrane shell [2a], and the neutron plasm [3a]. The core and membrane are solid black and the plasm is a shade of grey. The green shading around the core indicates its weak magnetic field. The magnetic north pole points down. The magnetic field of the whole neutron is the same as the core.

There are eight lines (numbered 1through 8), that are drawn connecting the outer surface of the core, to the inner surface of the membrane shell. Each line symbolically represents, the topological connectedness between the “outer” S1 surface area of the core, through the contained plasm matter, and the “inner” S2 surface area of the membrane. The number of lines is not important, as each line only represents equal portions of the two surface areas. The lines are symbolic of the topological connectivity within the plasm [3a], that is “broken” after transformation. It is this topological shearing of plasm spin energy into “equal mirror opposite live areas”, that creates the dipole electric charge shells, and electric fields, that envelop the proton and the electron.

The fourth color in Figure 13a, is the color white. In Neu Theory white symbolizes a place without energy, or a topological void.

There are only two topological places, in the Neu Theory model, that are assigned the color white. The first is the “ beyond space” void, or beyond the color blue; and the second is the electron hollow void. The two voids are topologically connected through the electron hollow. In this metaphysics the beyond space void is equal in number to the electron voids.

With extreme speculation, the electron S3 surface void is the only conceptual “wormhole” in Neu Theory. It would would allow for a topological path of travel, from an electron inner void, to the "beyond space" void, and back to the same or any other electron in the cosmos. All electrons would work.

Imagine us as metaphysical beings, able to observe and travel between the two non-physical topological forms. First to access the electron hollow void would require the conceptual path of travel “down” the hole in the membrane thickness of 0.06875 x 10-15 m until one reaches the inner void, from where, one would conceptually travel through the common “beyond space” open-hollow void, back into any other electron void anywhere in the universe, travel “up” the hole in the membrane and conceptually arrive somewhere else in the universe at any synchronous moment.

This fantasy allows for “now” moments of space travel, but not, for “before” and “after” moments of time travel. Reality requires each moment (spin) of natural acceleration to be experienced. One could make a movie where the action continues jumping from galaxy to galaxy in real time. It would be easy to get lost if you didn’t want to be found.

Polar Emergence

Figure 3.3b, represents the first stage in the hypothesized process of membrane spin-off. The intent is to describe, how the topological relationship between the three parts of the neutron, are maintained during and after fragmentation.

What 3.3b illustrates, is that the solid core and the elastic membrane of the neutron do not maintain a uniform separation with each other.

At some moment, for some reason, we can speculate the spinning outer surface (S1) of the core [1a]:

  • First pushes aside the non-spinning hollow plasm [3a].
  • Then “touches” the non-spinning inner surface (S2) of the membrane [2a].
  • Then “penetrates” through the thickness of the membrane, starting to “emerge” above the outer surface (S3) of the membrane.

Analogous to a drill, the spinning core creates two physical “openings” or “hole” in the membrane wall with no loss of material. Both the core and membrane matter are at an equal absolute density, and fermionic, so they cannot merge or overlap. The hole is the only topological possibility.

It is this breaking and exiting, that topologically (and physically), connects the two discrete surfaces (S2-S3) of the membrane shell, into one topological S1 surface with a newly created hole. The membrane has now become a deformable ball, and is able to invert. The core starts to “emerge” and the membrane (now a ball pancake) begins to “peel off” heading down in the diagram. The "yoni" of life.

In Figure 3.3, touching takes place above the spin-up neutron core’s south magnetic pole. All during the emergence process, it is important to keep in mind, that topological connectivity is completely maintained between the ball surface of the core, and the flipping from hollow to ball surface of the membrane.

Pre Spin-off Inversion

Figure 3.3c, graphically illustrates the next stage of the transformation sequence. The core region has penetrated through the shell, the shell has been inverted inside out, and the hollow plasm substance is now exposed to space. The membrane has completely uncovered the core, but remains topologically and physically connected through the plasm substance. The S2 hollow surface has become the S2 ball surface, and the S3 ball surface has now become the S3 hollow surface, but the hole is still shown open, meaning the aperture has not closed as yet.

This inversion can be visualized as being similar to peeling a banana (or a condom) with the exception that the banana peel stretches without tearing.

The 0.000 833 neu of plasm matter contained by topological volume (V3), is still very much there, but it is now physically exposed to space. One can visualize it as an amorphous “blob”, topologically “sticking” around the S1 & S2 surfaces, remaining a topological whole. The density of this blob will vary with the size of the neutron at its moment of transformation ranging from 3.33 x10-10 kg/m3 to 0.39 x1014 kg/m3. This is 23 orders of magnitude, an enormous range. This blob will eventually de-link becoming the four environmental energies of nature.

Up to now the only colors have been white, black, grey, and the green of magnetism because we are considering one neutron and nothing else. It is from the grey matter of the plasm blob that nature’s two other symbolic colors red and blue come from. Two forms of spin energy, electricity & light (red); and two forms of rise energy, space & motion (blue), are made from the blob. In a fundamental sense the colors are not new colors but de-linked pre-existing primal colors of the two perpetual movement/energy forms.

The only magnetic entity is the spinning neutron core with its north pole pointed down. The membrane will only become a magnet, when it starts its quantum spin as the electron ball with a closed hole, leading to a physical void at its center. The surface of the spin-up neutron core, that penetrates the membrane, had a magnetic south pole, and this south magnetic polarity is assumed to become imprinted, on the S2 surface at the membrane hole during its inversion until spin-off. Symbolic in the diagram, is that the hole in the membrane has a south polarity around the S2 rim of its aperture. The aperture has a physical opening to match the imprint from the neutron core. This south magnetic polarity is hypothesized to be carried along with the hole, as it inverts the membrane inside out until the membrane starts to spin, and then both the core and membrane ball flip in polarity again without any change to the direction of spin.

The membrane has a changing thickness as it becomes the electron. The thickness starts at a minimum, reflecting the overall size of the neutron, The thickness adjusts with the geometry of shape and it continues to become a uniformly thicker sheet until it forms a ball w/ void at a maximum thickness of 0.06875 x 10-15 m. Eventually 0.000 544 neu of pure matter at an absolute density will change into an effective ball with a diameter of 0.137 x 10-15 m, about one twelfth the size of the proton diameter at 1.683 x 10-15 m.

Charge / Zome / Motion

Figure 3.3d, represents the moment after transformation. Instead of one composite matter object, what remains are two separate matter objects, the core moving up in the diagram, and the detached inverted membrane moving down in the diagram with a slight angle to the core’s direction of motion.

It is important to keep emphasizing, that the diagrams are only schematic and do not indicate any physical scale. For example, the “void” shown within the electron has no physical volume and no physical substance. It is however a very real topological “place” shaped by the “self squeegeing” of the S3 surface into closure. For topological clarity, the electron void is graphically exaggerated, and shown filled with the color white, meaning it contains no energy. The electron looks more like what is shown in Figure 3.1.

The 0.000 833 neu blob of plasm spinrise matter is gone, meaning 1.395 x10-30 kg of mass has de-linked into its component movement/energies.

The color white around the pre-transformation neutron is also gone, meaning where as before there was no energy, now there is.

What remains from the grey plasm blob, are two forms of de-linked movement/energy, symbolized by the colors red and blue. The red is symbolic of 0.000 833 neu of spin energy, and the blue is symbolic of 0.000 833 neu of rise energy. The de-linked spin energy has become electricity, and the de-linked rise energy has become space & motion.

Electricity

The spin energy, subdivides into two equal dipole electric charge shells with electric fields, that condense around the proton core and the electron membrane ball. The charge shells are dynamic physical structures made from pure isotropic spin movement/energy, that has been topologically mirror split, into two equal parts. The electric charge shells have a hypothesized fixed volume, and a variable thickness, that depends on the size of the matter object they envelop. The charge shell thickness around the proton, is calculated equal to 11.5 x 10-20 m, and the charge shell thickness around the electron is calculated equal to 1,435 x 10-20 m, ~125 times thicker than the proton. The electric fields are considered by the model as “static” structures, attached to the charge shells, that extend an interactive force field into space, causing the movement of the charged matter objects they surround.

Neu Theory considers the electric charge shells (symbolically shown in the color red around the proton [6+] and the electron [6-]) as 0.000833u of spin movement/energy mirror split into two equal but opposite value energy shells, with discrete finite thicknesses. The split spin energy that surrounds the neutral spinning 0.998623u core, is called the positive electric energy shell (anode, p+). The mirror opposite split energy that surrounds the neutral spinning 0.000544u membrane is called the negative electric energy shell (cathode, e-). The thickness of the shell will vary with size of the matter object it surrounds.

The electric field [7+] and [7-], symbolically shown as a dashed circle around the charge shell, is a force field with an indefinite range, that decreases in strength with the inverse square of the distance away from the charge shell. Despite the great disparity in size – the proton having nearly two thousand times (1,835) more mass than an electron – the electric charge shells, and the electric fields are exactly equal in substance and strength. The only difference is topological curvature.

The electric force fields are strongly attractive between unlike (p+/e-) forms, and strongly repulsive between like (p+/p+) and (e-/e-) forms. The source of these force fields, are hypothesized by Neu Theory to arise from the two electric charge shells per se, not the matter objects they surround.

Space & Motion

Based on many experiments, on the average:

About two thirds of the rise energy from the de-linked mass, expands & diffuses-in-place as a zomon pulse adding to the free rise energy of space. In Figure 13d, this is graphically shown as blue shading within a dotted blue circle. There is a dotted blue arrow from the center of the blue shading to the dotted blue circle. The length of the dotted blue arrow represents the magnitude of the zomon’s energy. The direction of the arrowhead is pointing is fictitious and symbolizes the required direction for momentum conservation for a “massive” third body.

The dotted blue circle does not remain at a constant size, but is rather an expanding circle with a radius that is increasing at the accelerating speed of light. As we are considering only the energy of one transformation, the color white still remains topologically outside the dotted blue circle, as it expands.

However, in our ordinary reality there is always the faint blue background color of space around matter. Space energy has a calculated equivalent mass density of 2.03 x 10-31 kg/m3. The expanding dotted blue circle quickly disappears into the background of space energy when the expanding zomon density reaches the average local density of space.

About one third of the rise energy from the de-linked mass is converted into kinetic energy shooting off the electron cannon ball with a recoil to the proton cannon. This is graphically shown in Figure 13d as solid blue arrows representing momentum vectors with a magnitude and direction.

The distribution of rise energy between space and motion varies as is reflected by the continuous emission spectrum of the electrons. However the combined rise energy of the two forms is an invariant 0.000833u.

Magnetic Dipole Flip

After membrane spin-off, and its condensation into a ball, the magnetic polarity of both the core and the membrane (now separate objects) reverses (flips), relative to their permanent spin axis. The electron, due to membrane inversion, in effect does a double flip, and winds up with same polarity as the original neutron.

The reason for this magnetic reversal is not clear, but it definitely does occur, and fortuitously for our future existence, provides a much needed physical opposition and spin alignment tool between the spinning neutron and proton cores allowing for the synthesis of the stable deuteron, and thereby the remaining atomic elements.

This is the dynamic structural foundation from which future physical architecture takes form.

The Transformation Moment

A good question that can be asked is when does the little bang transformation end. When does the neutron stop being the a-state neutron and become the b-state electric couple shown in Figure 13d.

Neu Theory hypothesizes this occurs, after the neutral membrane ball begins its spin, and the hollow plasm de-links into the charge shells surrounding the matter couple, concurrent with the birth of space and motion.

The Spin of the Electron

We will now discuss when the future electron begins its spin. It is hypothesized that membrane spin begins even before the electron’s charge shell is formed.

The membrane does not begin to quantum spin during the opening procedure (13b). During the opening procedure topological “spin direction” is established, and the “memory” of the exact moment of historical time (the current accelerating speed of light) is imprinted, but the membrane does not as yet start to spin.

However, the opening act does synchronizes the physical acceleration of the membrane with the core, when the neutron separates into two objects. This is why all neutron cores, protons & electrons are alike and they are all spinning together in the same direction with an individual universal synchroneity.

When the “reverse” occurs during neucleon synthesis (Part 5 – The Neucleon Clusters Hypothesis), and the electron spin-flips over two protons making the deuteron – all three spins have to align in the same direction before synthesis can occur.

Neu Theory defines quantum spin as an axially variable closure time (ct) of the physical substance at the accelerating speed of light resulting in a surface making a topological ball shape. The physical substance can be visualized as a spherical vortex spinning around an axis of rotation at the accelerating speed of light. The matter is considered to be internally frictionless as it spins meaning there is no shear resistence within its substance. At different cross sections parallel to the equator (latitude) the closure time of surface matter varies, approaching zero at the geographic poles and reaching a maximum at the equator. It is this maximum closure time that defines the geometric size of physical mass. The time of closure at the equator, becomes the definition of quantum spin, measured as a frequency and wavelength.

It is hypothesized, that membrane quantum spin actually begins after the inverted ball pancake of (3.3c) condenses into a ball, making a void hollow, topologically closing the aperture of the hole. It is after the moment of hole closure and the forming of the ball shape, that the membrane starts to spin. There is a brief moment of time between hole closure and spin start. It is hypothesized that the time from rest to spin start is a minimum of 1.44 x 10-24 seconds. This is equal to the electron circumference divided by the speed of light.

There is no intermediated time of acceleration, meaning the spin does not “come up to speed”, it begins at the accelerating speed of light. One moment there is “rest”, the next moment there is “quantum spin” at the accelerating speed of light. The membrane now will forever spin in the same direction as the core. The direction of helicity is maintained by nature’s two perpetual movements, which only interact one-way. Nature does not allow anything else and one-way nature will never change.

Even after the beginning of membrane quantum spin, the transformation is still not complete. The spin/magnetic membrane is still not a negative electron, and the spin/magnetic core is still not a positive proton. There is no electricity as yet. This will only occur after the two quantum spinning objects topologically detatch at the moment of plasm matter de-linkage. Topological detachment is the moment, when the 0.000833u spin movement/energy quanta mirror splits into the electric charge shells which condense around the two matter objects, and the 0.000833u rise movement/energy quanta becomes space/motion. This is the moment of Figure 3.3d.

It is hypothesized that at a minimum, de-linkage will occur after one quantum spin of the membrane ball (1.44 x 10-24 s). At a maximum, de-linkage will occur after one quantum spin of the proton core (1.76 x 10-23 s). The ratio between the two spins is a universal physical constant, approximately 12.24. The electron spins approximately 12.24 times for each spin of the proton. Somewhere between 1 and 13 spins of the membrane ball, de-linkage will occur.

The additional action of membrane spin, creates a topological “twisting” direction, that is applied to plasm matter even though there is no friction assumed between the Type I and Type II matter forms. At some moment, plasm matter will topologically de-link into equal amounts of “red” spin energy and “blue” rise energy, that are freshly released into the universe.

The red spin energy undergoes “spherical unzipping”, and condenses into two equal and opposite electric charge shells and electric fields, with equal and opposite topological curvature but the same spin direction imprint, that envelope the proton and the electron matter objects.

Synchronously, the blue rise energy explodes into the isotropic free rise energy of space, and bound kinetic energy, carried by the electron and recoiling proton. The de-linkage is the end moment of the “little bang.”

After spin-off, the neutral proton core, with its positive electric charge shell, and the neutral electron inverted membrane ball, with its negative electric charge shell, spin in the same direction as the original neutral neutron core.

In the Neu Theory model, only neutral matter balls at absolute density spin. The electric charge shells that envelope them, are discrete, and as they are pure isotropic energy, do not spin. It is the discrete nature of a charge shell that allows it to exist above the non-spinning neucleonic membrane. Without the ability by the positive charge shell to migrate between surfaces, atoms after hydrogen-1 could not be formed.

A magnetic dipole flip, of the spinning core occurs at the transformation moment. The magnetic south pole of the neutron spinning core, becomes the magnetic north pole of the proton spinning core. As the proton and electron depart away from each other, they also spin in the same direction, with their south magnetic poles facing each other creating magnetic repulsion. The electron’s magnetic field, is more than 600 times stronger than the proton’s, with an opposite polarity.

Conservation of the Prime Law

We shall now examine how the laws of nature are conserved during the “beta decay” of current science which is the “little bang” of Neu Theory.

In the Neu Theory model the conservation laws that need to be observed, are the fundamental rules of nature, specifically the rules of movement, number, and form. The laws state a simple truth: what was before, shall remain after. We shall first discuss the conservation of number and form, and then the conservation of movement.

The Conservation of Number

The rules of number require that one quantum unit of number equals two equal quantum units of energy. The conservation of number is equivalent to the conservation of energy.

The quantum unit of number and mass is the neutron. This simply means that the difference in mass (0.000833u) between the neutron before transformation, and the proton plus electron after transformation, be accounted for in two equal forms of energy. These energies become:

  • electric charge shells [6+][6-] & fields [7+][7-] – equal to 0.000833u spin movement/energy
  • space [8] & motion [9] – equal to 0.000833u rise movement/energy.

The energy books are found to balance. There is no number and energy problem.

The Conservation of Form

The rules of form require; 1) that the total number of surfaces and volumes before and after transformation remain the same; 2) that the topological relationship between the structural parts of the proto object be maintained. This is found to occur.

  • The S1 surface & V1 volume of the neutron core [1a], remains as the S1 surface & V1 volume of the proton core [1b].
  • The S2-S3 surfaces & V2 volume of the neutron membrane shell [2a], remain as the S2-S3 surfaces & V2 volume of the electron inverted membrane ball [2b], with its void hollow center.

The topological procedure of “making a hole” in the neutron membrane, which allows it to invert, does physically connect the S2 & S3 surfaces of the membrane, making them topologically one surface, but this is temporary, and after the aperture of the hole closes, both surfaces reappear. The S3 hollow surface may now be a curled up void inside the electron, but topologically, it is still very much there. Topologically, one half of the closed hole depth, stays with the S2 surface, and one half of the closed hole depth, stays with the S3 void surface.

The topological connection, between the S1 surface of the neutron core and the S2 surface of the neutron membrane through the V3 “closed hollow” plasm volume, remains after transformation.

After transformation, the connection is between the S1 surface of the proton core with its positive charge shell and the S2 surface of the electron ball with its negative charge shell, through the common V3 “open hollow” volume of space.

Before transformation with the neutron, the topological connection is between a ball surface and a hollow surface. After transformation with the proton and electron, the topological connection is between two ball surfaces, however, the connectedness between the S1 & S2 surfaces remains.

The Conservation of Movement

The rules of movement require that before and after transformation, the quantity, form and direction of movement be conserved.

The quantity of movement is the same as energy and is addressed with the rules of number.

The forms of movement are spin or rise.

The direction of both movements is one-way.

It is the conservation of the one way direction of each form of movement that is now discussed.

The Conservation of Spin Direction

The direction of pure spin movement/energy, is isotropic closure at the accelerating speed of light around a center.

When spin movement/energy is linked with rise movement/energy to make matter, it makes a minimum shape (the ball) with an absolute density.

Further acceleration of the spin energy content of matter, causes the entire “liquid” ball of matter (assumed perfectly round), to physically rotate as an spherical axial vortex at the speed of light, and then maintain this rotation. The time taken for one period of rotation at the equator, is called quantum spin. The quantum spin of the neutron and proton cores, is equal to 1.764 366 x 10-23 seconds. The quantum spin of the electron ball is 1.440 967 x 10-24 seconds. Approximately 12.24 spins of the electron equals one spin of the neutron and proton cores.

For spin movement direction to be conserved simply means, that the quantum spin direction of the neutron core before transformation, is the same as the quantum spin direction of the proton core, and the quantum spin direction of the electron membrane ball, after transformation. This is what we find to occur. The direction of spin is invariant. Its always "thumbs up."

Topologically, the electron is a ball w/ hole leading to a central void. The hole opening always points in the direction of the free electron’s (and electric current) motion, and always presents a north magnetic pole at the hole.

Thus there is no spin angular momentum problem. There would only be a problem, if the before and after spin direction of the neutron, proton and electron were different.

This fundamental truth of our one-way universe, applies to all spinning cores and membranes everywhere. Because of the constant of uniform universal acceleration, not only do they all spin in the same direction, but the spins of similar objects are also synchronized, meaning they are all in “phase” becoming a part of one synchronized cosmic dance.

Each neutron core beats in rhythm with every other neutron and proton core. Each electron beats in rhythm with every other electron everywhere in the universe. As we shall see in Part 4 – The Neucleon Clusters Hypothesis, captive proton cores in neucleonic clusters everywhere are hypothesized to have their own quantum rhythm that varies with their physical size unique to each nuclide. The captive proton cores of Xenon-136 at 5.710945 x 1023 beats per second are the smallest and fastest beating cores in nature.

This is the cosmic rhythm of the spheres. Nature’s music is built upon this foundation.

The Conservation of Rise Direction

The direction of pure “blue” rise movement/energy is isotropic expansion & diffusion-in-place at the accelerating speed of light away from a center.

The direction of free rise movement, is always a one-way expansion outward from the source. During the little bang, the exploding plasm surrounded both the S1 surface of the core and the S2 surface of the membrane. Both objects topologically share the blast of expanding rise energy.

The more massive (0.998 623 neu) proton “cannons” recoil away from the explosion site in one direction, with a small relatively constant share of the blob’s expanding rise movement/energy.

The far less massive (0.000 544 neu) electron “cannonballs” are projected away from the explosion site in another direction, with a variable share of the plasm’s expanding rise movement/energy.

The two directions of motion are never found to be exactly opposite, there is a definite angle between them. This is part of the “linear momentum problem.” The reason for this angle needs to be explained.

The remainder of the blob’s expanding rise movement/energy (the zomon pulse) diffuses-in-place at the accelerating speed of light away from the explosion site and away from both the relatively slow moving S1 proton surface, and the faster moving S2-S3 electron surfaces. The direction of all three blue movements is always away (outward) from the center of the explosion site. There is no “implosion”. It is this perpetual outward movement that conserves the one-way direction of rise.

Momentum & Kinetic Energy

The momentum of a body, is equal to its mass times its velocity (mv). The kinetic energy of a body, is equal to one half times its momentum squared (½ mv2). If the mass of a moving body is doubled, its kinetic energy is also doubled, however when the velocity is doubled, the kinetic energy carried by the same amount of mass, is quadrupled.

At speeds close to light, a small mass, can carry kinetic energy that is far greater, than a much larger mass moving at speeds, that are a small fraction of the speed of light.

This is true in neutron transformation, as the kinetic energy carried by the relatively slow moving massive protons, represents a constant small fraction (∼1/1000th) of the total de-linked rise energy, while the much faster and less massive electrons, carry on the average about one third (∼1/3) of the total de-linked rise energy. Most of the de-linked rise energy about two thirds (∼2/3), becomes a zomon pulse, or a quanta of expanding and diffusing-in-place space.

The Newtonian conservation of momentum principle requires, that the total momentum of an isolated system, remain constant.

In the beta decay experiments, the original neutron has zero momentum, in a frame of reference that moves with the beam. For momentum to be conserved (in the same moving frame of reference), the total momentum of the transformation products, that is, the sum of all the individual momenta must also add up to zero.

To visualize this, imagine the equator of the spinning neutron core as a plane that separates above from below (north from south). According to Newton’s Laws, after neutron transformation, there must be an equal amount of individual momenta, north and south of the equator. The number of objects carrying the momenta on each side of the equator is not important. The individual vector sums must reduce to one vector north of the equator and an exact equal and opposite vector south of the equator. Only then can the total momentum add up to zero. Newtonian conservation of momentum is ultimately reducible to a two body problem (p1+p2 = constant).

The Conservation of Space/Momentum in The Little Bang

Momentum in the little bang model cannot be reduced to two Newtonian opposites.

Momentum in the little bang is a three body problem, where only two of the bodies have mass, and are thus able to carry momentum and kinetic energy. The third body, is a freshly created isotropic burst of expanding rise energy from the de-linkage of plasm mass, that is unable because of its isotropy, to carry momentum and kinetic energy in the Newtonian sense.

The zomon, is a form of energy, that cannot be accurately drawn as a vector with a conserved magnitude and direction. The zomon pulse, is a discrete quantity of free isotropic rise movement/energy that quickly fades away (diffuses in an ever expanding volume) once released. There is no one specific direction of travel with a zomon, it homogeneously travels in all directions at once, and is noticeable only for a brief moment of time.

Newton’s 3rd law which says that action is equal and opposite to reaction, applies only to the momentum of massive bodies, and the zomon is not a massive body capable of carrying momentum and kinetic energy in the directional sense.

The zomon pulse doesn’t play by Newtonian rules. For one thing it is not conserved in the usual sense, it doesn’t hang around waiting to be measured, it quickly disappears into the background of space, of which it becomes an indistinguishable quantum part.

What is conserved in the little bang, are the combined actions of space/momentum.

Topologically, both space and motion are freshly created from matter at the same time. It is the presence of space, that allows for the presence of motion. Motion needs space, because without it, there is nowhere for it to go. Space is a dynamic isotropic movement at the accelerating speed of light, while motion is a dynamic vector movement carried by matter, at always less than the speed of light. Motion can never “catch up” with space acceleration. Space will always “outrun” motion.

The momentum of the proton, can be considered as a “reaction” vector with a magnitude and a direction, that needs to be balanced by the combined “action” vectors, of the speeding electron and the zomon pulse. It is easy to assign a momentum vector, with a magnitude and direction to both the proton and the electron, but to assign a momentum vector to the zomon is symbolic.

In Figure 3.1, the two solid blue arrows are the very real momentum vectors of the proton and the electron, that we measure in our experiments.

The proton’s momentum vector (P1), is at a slight angle to its spin vector, and in the same general direction as its spin vector. The electron’s momentum vector (P2), is aligned exactly opposite its spin vector. The two motions are generally opposite relative to a common spin frame of reference, meaning the proton goes one way (north), relative to the original neutron spin direction, and electron goes the opposite way (south), relative to the original neutron spin direction.

However the two matter bodies, do not move exactly opposite each other, because there is another player, the zomon, in the mix. The zomon is omni-directional, so it cannot balance direction, but it does carry energy, so it can account for the missing mass energy. Symbolically, the zomon pulse can be thought as always having a topological direction in the opposite axial hemisphere, to both the proton’s, and electron’s direction of motion.

The dotted blue arrow in Figure 3.1, is an imaginary “momentum” vector (P3) of the zomon pulse, that represents the brief moment of time, it exists as a measurable entity. The length of the dotted blue zomon arrow is a real magnitude, and represents the real time, at the accelerating speed of light, taken by the zomon pulse to diffuse to the background density of space.

The more energy carried by the zomon the longer the dotted length of the blue arrow, the less energy carried by the zomon the shorter the dotted length of the blue arrow. However, the direction shown by the arrowhead of the zomon vector, is symbolic. Its sole purpose, similar to the momentum vector of a neutrino “particle” in current science, is to indicate the one direction, all the missing mass energy would have to be released on order to conserve Newtonian momentum.

The zomon vector on the average, carries approximately two thirds (2/3) of the neutron plasm’s 0.000 833u quantum rise movement/energy. Neu Theory calculates, that the average zomon vector has an approximate length of one meter, with a detectable lifetime of three billionths of one second. This calculation is based on the observed average density of matter in the universe, currently estimated by NASA at one atom per four cubic meters of space, and the observed relative abundance of the elements, from other sources. If the average density of matter or relative abundance of the elements is changed, the average zomon vector calculation, will also change correspondingly.

The question can be asked if there is a relationship, between the angle of departure, and the velocity of departure of the electron? All measurements are made relative to the spin axis of a neutron, transforming at the center of the experimental decay volume . It is speculated, that a slower departure velocity of the electron, will result in a greater angle of departure, with a similar rotation of the electron’s spin axis, as more energy is carried by the zomon pulse. Conversely, a faster departure velocity of the electron, will result in a smaller angle of departure, with a similar rotation of the electron’s spin axis, as less energy is carried by the zomon pulse.

The recoil momentum of the proton, that is created at the moment of transformation, is only partially balanced by the momentum of the speeding electron. Energy is conserved with the zomon.